Prophets or Evolution - An LDS Perspective

 

Chapter 11

 

Adam and Eve or

George and Mary?

 

 

"“The Priesthood was first given to Adam; he obtained the First Presidency, and held the keys of it from generation to generation. He obtained it in the Creation, before the world was formed, as in Gen. 1:26, 27, 28. He had dominion given him over every living creature. He is Michael the Archangel, spoken of in the Scriptures. Then to Noah, who is Gabriel; he stands next in authority to Adam in the Priesthood; he was called of God to this office, and was the father of all living in his day, and to him was given the dominion. These men held keys first on earth, and then in heaven.

 

The Priesthood is an everlasting principle, and existed with God from eternity, and will to eternity, without beginning of days or end of years [see Joseph Smith Translation, Hebrews 7:3]. The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam’s authority.

 

Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael; he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man [see Daniel 7:9–14]. He (Adam) is the father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. … The Son of Man stands before him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe, but retains his standing as head of the human family.

 

… The Father called all spirits before Him at the creation of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to multiply. The keys were first given to him, and by him to others. He will have to give an account of his stewardship, and they to him."

The Teachings of Joseph Smith

 

 

Adam and Eve

 

The most important difference between the theory of evolution and LDS doctrine, from the perspective of nature, is the origin of human beings.

 

To LDS doctrine, and other Christian religions, human origins began with Adam and Eve being created directly by God in the Garden of Eden.

 

Human beings are species: homo sapiens; and subspecies: sapiens.  Because we are the only living subspecies in homo sapiens, we are frequently just referred to as homo sapiens.  For the purposes of this chapter, we will be exact and refer to humans as: homo sapiens sapiens.

 

The first two homo sapiens sapiens are critical to the evolution debate since the entire theory of evolution seeks to explain how they came to exist by a series of accidental mutations of DNA.

 

According to the laws of biology, there had to be a first male and a first female homo sapiens sapiens to mate and start the human race.  It is only the first couple to have a child, and from which all modern humans have descended (according to the theory of evolution), which we are interested in in this chapter.

 

So what were the names of the first two true homo sapiens sapiens from which all modern humans are descended and which had exactly the same DNA as modern humans?

 

According to LDS doctrine, they were named Adam and Eve.

 

The scientific establishment has not identified or named any fossils as being the first two true homo sapiens sapiens; so herein we will simply call them George and Mary.

 

Thus, according to the Bible and other scriptures, you and I are descended from Adam and Eve.  But according to the theory of evolution, you and I are descended from George and Mary, who lived more than 100,000 years ago.

 

 

What is a "Species?"

 

There is more than one definition of "species."  In this book a "species" is defined by a unique "DNA structure."  A "DNA structure" means that every individual in a "species," by definition, has DNA which is the same length, has the same set of genes, in the same locations on the DNA, etc. etc.  In other words, a "species" is defined by a unique DNA structure.

 

Thus, by definition, the first true homo sapiens sapiens had exactly the same DNA structure as modern humans (if they are claimed to be the same species we modern humans are).  This is an important concept and it is driven by the definition of a "species," which means they had to have had the exact same DNA structure as each of us.

 

Whether Adam and Eve were the first humans (i.e. true homo sapiens sapiens) or whether George and Mary were the first humans (i.e. true homo sapiens sapiens), they had exactly the same DNA structure as every human being on earth today and they were the first to have this structure.

 

Frequently when watching television shows on paleontology you will hear a fossil described as being from an animal which was "near human."  George and Mary were not "near human."  Let me repeat that.  George and Mary, by definition, were not "near human."  By definition, because they had the same exact DNA structure as modern humans, they were "pure humans" and were true homo sapiens sapiens and had exactly the same DNA structure as modern humans.

 

In this chapter we are only interested in pure homo sapiens sapiens, and nothing else.

 

 

George and Mary - A Slight Improvement

 

According to the theory of evolution, all new species were "slight improvements" over some prior species.  Thus, George and Mary, if they came to exist by evolution, only represented a slight improvement over their closest ancestor (i.e. their parents, who by definition had a different DNA structure than they did).

 

The theory of evolution claims that species on this earth have gradually improved from species to species.  These small improvements gave the new species a slight advantage.  By taking advantage of this slight advantage, "survival of the fittest" secured their place in history (or until some future species or event annihilated them).

 

"Natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight, successive variations.  She can never take a great and sudden leap, but must advance by short and sure, though slow steps.

Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species

 

Thus, according to the theory of evolution, their poster children of the human race, George and Mary, would have only been a slight improvement over their parents (most likely George and Mary, if evolution were true, would have been siblings for reasons beyond the scope of this chapter).

 

Thus, since modern humans have, by definition, the exact same DNA as George and Mary (assuming the theory of evolution is true), and because George and Mary were only slight improvements over their parents and other ancestors; then it can be logically concluded that modern humans are only slight improvements over the parents (and close ancestors) of George and Mary, if evolution is true.

 

We will see if the evidence from life on this planet fits the theory of evolution's claims of small improvements.

 

 

Modern Military Weapons

 

Before talking about Adam and Eve or George and Mary any more; it is necessary to introduce the reader to some of the weapon systems of the U.S. Army and other military branches.  You will understand why this discussion is necessary in a moment.

 

Let us take, for example, the Abrams tank.  It can fire very, very powerful projectiles, which are shot from a 120 mm M256 smoothbore barrel.  It also has several other potent weapons.  It can fire its main gun while it is traveling at full speed as soldiers look through 6 different periscopes.  Even if the tank is moving up and down over the terrain it can still fire its main gun at any time.  Its aim is aided by a laser rangefinder.

 

Inside the tank are multiple computers.  Let us talk about one of them, the FBCB2/BFT.  This is a device that includes a computer, a satellite receiver and a satellite transmitter.

 

The computer has a display which shows a map of the general area the tank is located in.  On the computer display is a map superimposed with “icons,” or symbols, which represent where other friendly units are located (i.e. other Army, Marine, etc. units).

 

As part of the FBCB2/BFT computer is a transmitter which sends a signal to a satellite so that other friendly units will know the exact location of the tank at any given time.  The FBCB2/BFT also displays icons where the Army intelligence people estimate the enemy forces are located.

 

Thus, aside from having incredible fire power and armor, those inside the tank can know exactly where other nearby soldiers are located and other soldiers can know exactly where they are located.

 

Let us also talk about UAVs (Unmanned Ariel Vehicles).  These are small airplanes (actually, some of them are very large) which have no pilot (i.e. they are “unmanned”).  At any given time there will be several of these airplanes in the air in Iraq, or in other countries our military is fighting hostile enemies.  Who is flying these UAVs?  Possibly some computer techie sitting in a trailer house in California is flying the UAV in Iraq via satellite signals.

 

In other words, the pilot of an airplane in Iraq may be a person sitting at a computer terminal in a trailer in California.  If someone shoots down the UAV, the computer techie will probably scream at his or her computer screen in California; then go get a soda pop and take a break.

 

The UAVs can take incredible photographs continuously, showing congregations of people or individuals.  Military intelligence (these are people, not a concept) must sort out who is friendly and who is not.

 

My personal favorite weapon is the B-2 bomber.  It is the most potent long-range bomber on earth (in 2009).  I have seen them fly and they are unbelievably impressive.

 

Many of them are based near highway I-70 in the middle of Missouri.  This is between Kansas City and St. Louis.  I have made that trip many times and have seen B-2s in flight at least 3 times.  They carry incredibly smart bombs that can hit targets only a few feet wide from several miles above ground.  They could carry nuclear weapons, if needed.

 

In fact, when the U.S. Army goes to battle, incredible technology goes with them.  What has been discussed here is only the tip of the iceberg of military weapons and is all public information.

 

 

Back to George and Mary

 

Our concern in this chapter is to talk about the first true homo sapiens sapiens because, if evolution were true, George and Mary would have had, by definition, the exact same DNA as modern humans.

 

Trying to get a paleontologist to say definitely which fossil represents the oldest homo sapiens sapiens (meaning the oldest fossil which had exactly the same DNA as modern humans) is a difficult task.  It is a moving target and you are never quite sure who to ask.

 

For example, one of the oldest fossils, which some claim had very similar DNA as we humans, lived in eastern Ethiopia around 160,000 years ago.  The three “Herto fossils” are believed by some to be the oldest of our close relatives.

 

However, these fossils are also referred to as “near-modern humans.”  What does that mean?  Either they had the exact same DNA as modern humans or they did not.  If they did not, then they were not homo sapiens sapiens and they were not George or Mary - period.

 

Regardless of what fossil(s) end up being touted as having exactly the same DNA as modern humans, the homo sapiens sapiens, let us assume that scientists eventually concur that the oldest fossils to have the exact DNA as modern humans, the homo sapiens sapiens, are at least 100,000 years old.  While new fossils may some day push that number forward or backward, for now this is the number that this chapter will deal with.

 

This means that there was a male homo sapiens sapiens and a female homo sapiens sapiens roaming the earth (most likely in Africa or Siberia according to paleontologists) about a hundred thousand years ago (this is my number since no one else has yet committed to a number).

 

Neanderthals became extinct around 26,000 years ago (living approximately from 350,000 B.C. to 24,000 B.C.).  Note that these dates are always subject to change without notice.

 

Cro-Magnon (the “earliest modern people in Europe”) existed from about 40,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C.  Again, these dates could change at any time.

 

Regardless of what dates are used for the first homo sapiens sapiens DNA, it appears to paleontologists that Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon and homo sapiens sapiens (i.e. our DNA) all co-existed at some point in time, meaning they all lived on the earth at the same time for many centuries.

 

It is doubtful that paleontologists will ever admit that the first true homo sapiens sapiens (i.e. our DNA) came on the scene less than 10,000 years ago, because that would be an admission that Adam and Eve (the Biblical chronology puts Adam and Eve at approximately 6,000 years ago, or 4,000 B.C.) was possibly true.

 

So whatever dates are used by the scientific establishment for the first true homo sapiens sapiens DNA, we will assume scientists will always pick a date at least 20,000 years ago.  Right now we will use 100,000 years.

 

The point is that when the first homo sapiens sapiens arrived on the scene, with the exact same DNA as modern humans, either the Cro-Magnon or the Neanderthals or both were still around, according to paleontologists.  These would likely have been considered enemies of the true homo sapiens sapiens.

 

 

George and Mary 100,000 Years Ago

 

At the time George and Mary lived, the world was very primitive.  Crude tools, crude weapons, etc. were the rule of the day.  By "crude weapons" I am not talking about a crude Abrams tank, I am talking about a crude stone arrow strapped to a crude stick.  The military tactics of the day were equally crude.

 

Now let us think about George and Mary.  They had the same exact DNA as any man and woman of today, by definition.  In fact, we can say with total confidence that if George and Mary had been born in 1965, they could have gone to college and each gotten a PhD.

 

Since the differences between a male DNA and a female DNA have nothing to do with intelligence, it is safe to assume that George and Mary had equal intelligences relative to each other, since they had the same DNA (as far as intelligence is concerned, but not as far as reproductive features are concerned).

 

Now let us think about this.  Because George and Mary had exactly the same DNA as modern humans, by definition; had they been born in 1965, they could have helped design and fly the B-2 bomber.  They could have helped design the electronics in Army satellites.  They could have helped design and drive the Abrams tank or design the FBCB2/BFT software or design and fly UAVs.  They could have designed the Hubble space telescope, which is used by astronomers, and they could have helped design the rocket engines which put the Hubble telescope into orbit.  And so on.

 

Why do I say these things?  Because if the theory of evolution is correct, George and Mary would have had the same DNA as we modern humans have.  Thus, they would have had exactly the same mental abilities as we have and; had they been trained as we are trained.

 

Now what is wrong with this picture?

 

What is wrong is that evolution claims that evolutionary changes in species are very small and very subtle and very slight.  That is the entire argument to counteract the statistical problems the theory of evolution faces.  These very small improvements create a very small “advantage” to their survival, but yet enough for them to survive.

 

George and Mary could have survived in the world of 100,000 years ago if they had they been able to strap a rock on a stick better than the Neanderthal.  They could have survived if they had invented the bow and arrow (even a very crude bow and arrow).  They could have survived if they had invented a way to tie a rock on a strap, on one end of the strap, and a stick on the other end of the strap (i.e. a crude mace).

 

The problem is that if George and Mary could have designed and flown a B-2 bomber in 100,000 B.C. they did not represent small improvements on the DNA of their parents (if evolution is true and if they were truly homo sapiens sapiens).

 

Anyone with our DNA structure, including George and Mary, could have helped design and fly the B-2 bomber or UAVs.  George or Mary could have flown an F-22 Raptor fighter jet or an F-35 Lightening II fighter jet, as good as anyone today - had this equipment existed in 100,000 B.C.

 

Evolutionists have a major problem.  Why did George and Mary have intelligences incomprehensively superior to the other living beings of their day?  Why did they have intelligences far, far beyond what they needed to survive?  Why did they not have a small evolutionary jump in intelligence?  Why did they represent a gigantic, colossal, titanic evolutionary leap?

 

Furthermore, if George and Mary represented only a slight improvement over their parent species, why did their parent species go extinct?

 

Evolutionists like to study the gap in intelligence between ancestors of the first homo sapiens sapiens.  It is not about a gap in intelligence, it is about a humongous overkill.  An intelligence that is so far superior to other creatures of their day that is was not even funny.  An intelligence not just capable of carving a better arrow tip, but designing a B-2 bomber and writing the FCBC2/BFT software, 100,000 years ago!!

 

George and Mary do not fit the model of the theory of evolution.  Not even close.

 

As another example, George and Mary could have survived in their day if their eyes had been good enough to see 300 yards away.  But yet both of them had such precise eyesight they could have flown an F-22 Raptor 100,000 years ago.  This is another of many cases of overkill on the part of George and Mary.

 

 

Adam and Eve (LDS Doctine)

 

According to the Bible, Book of Mormon, etc., Adam and Eve were the first two true homo sapiens sapiens.  Furthermore, they had no ancestors on this earth.  Thus, according to the Bible, they had the same exact DNA as modern humans and they were created by God about 6,000 years ago, according to most Bible scholars.

 

Before saying any more about Adam and Eve, let us look at the official LDS doctrine of who Adam was.

 

It has already been established in this book that the Savior “created the heavens and the earth, and all things that are in them.”  If that is not clear enough, this next verse establishes that Christ existed prior to the world existing:

 

  5 If they be good, to the resurrection of everlasting life; and if they be evil, to the resurrection of damnation; being on a parallel, the one on the one hand and the other on the other hand, according to the mercy, and the justice, and the holiness which is in Christ, who was before the world began.

3 Nephi 26:5 [Jesus Christ in America]

 

Thus, the Savior existed prior to the creation of the earth, which obviously occurred prior to the creation of Adam and Eve.

 

Now let us talk about Adam.

 

According to LDS doctrine, Adam was the head of the first dispensation, meaning he was a great prophet.  Furthermore, according to LDS doctrine, Adam is the chief of all of the dispensation heads.  Even Joseph Smith reports to Adam in the spirit world.

 

This means that Adam is not only the patriarch of the human race, but also its spiritual leader, under the direction of the Savior.  In other words, he was the greatest of all the prophets.

 

Also note this: when the Savior was talking about John the Baptist, this is what He said:

 

  11 Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist.

Matthew 11:11

 

Who was not "born of women?"  Only Adam was not "born of women," thus the Savior was essentially saying: "Among the prophets, only Adam was greater than John the Baptist."

 

There was a war in heaven in the preexistence.  One side was led by satan.  Who led the side of those who were fighting for Christ?  Here is the answer (Adam is called "Michael" in these versus; satan is called the "dragon"):

 

  7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,

  8 And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.

  9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

Revelations 12:7-9

 

Thus we see that Adam was at the head of the spiritual army which represented Christ Himself; the army which fought against satan and cast satan out of heaven onto this earth still as a spirit.

 

Adam, or Michael, is still an important part of the plan of salvation:

 

  16 Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the keys of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is without beginning of days or end of life.

D&C 78:16

 

Adam and satan will yet battle again, in the future, after the thousand year Millennium:

 

  110 And so on, until the seventh angel shall sound his trump; and he shall stand forth upon the land and upon the sea, and swear in the name of him who sitteth upon the throne, that there shall be time no longer; and Satan shall be bound, that old serpent, who is called the devil, and shall not be loosed for the space of a thousand years.

  111 And then he shall be loosed for a little season, that he may gather together his armies.

  112 And Michael, the seventh angel, even the archangel, shall gather together his armies, even the hosts of heaven.

  113 And the devil shall gather together his armies; even the hosts of hell, and shall come up to battle against Michael and his armies.

  114 And then cometh the battle of the great God; and the devil and his armies shall be cast away into their own place, that they shall not have power over the saints any more at all.

  115 For Michael shall fight their battles, and shall overcome him who seeketh the throne of him who sitteth upon the throne, even the Lamb.

  116 This is the glory of God, and the sanctified; and they shall not any more see death.

Doctrine and Covenants 88:110-116

 

Thus, we can conclude that Adam and Eve were among the greatest of the spirits in the preexistence; both in terms of spirituality and in terms of intelligence!!

 

Thus, had Adam and Eve been born in 1965, they could have helped design the Abrams tank or the B-2 bomber or the FBCB2/BFT software.  Either of them could have flown the F-22 Raptor in 4,000 B.C., had one existed.

 

Adam and Eve were among the smartest of the spirits in the preexistence (i.e. the period of time when humans were still spirits).  Thus, they were as smart as any of today's scientists, and were probably much smarter than any of today's scientists.

 

So yes, Adam and Eve were very, very smart according to LDS scriptures.  Information about Adam and Eve were not only published in the Bible, but also in LDS literature long before Darwin’s The Origin of Species.

 

Is Christian doctrine, including added LDS doctrine, consistent with the concept that the first homo sapiens sapiens (Adam and Eve) were smart enough to help design and fly the B-2 bomber; help design and drive the Abrams tank; etc.?  Absolutely!!

 

Thus, we see that the theory of evolution is not consistent with the data.  George and Mary would have represented huge, huge jumps in intelligence from their parents.

 

But we also see that the teachings of the prophets, which were public information long before Darwin went public, are perfectly consistent with the data.

 

 

The Ages Achieved By Our Ancestors

 

In the Bible several people achieved an age of 900 years old and above.

 

In general, only the ages of the prophets are mentioned, but excluding wars and disease, it is likely some non-prophets were also living to very old ages.

 

Are such claims consistent with the data?  Actually they are.

 

Geneticists constantly see the degradation of human DNA.  In fact, it is deteriorating at an alarming rate.  It is called "genetic entropy."

 

If the Biblical account of Adam and Eve is true, and their DNA was created directly by God, it is clear that their DNA was perfect and without flaw.  Thus, it is entirely consistent with what geneticists see in the real world; that Adam and Eve would have had much purer DNA (i.e. free of mutations) than modern humans.

 

Thus, they would have lived to be much, much older than current humans.  An age of over 900 years would be believable.  It is also possible Eve was healthy enough, and lived long enough, to have had many children.

 

At the time they lived the soil would have had optimal minerals and other nutrients in it.  The food in their day was probably far superior to modern day food because the plants (and possibly animals) had not yet had mutations start to degrade their DNA.  Also, the earth was not over-farmed (which depletes nutrients) and food was not loaded with artificial ingredients.

 

Because Adam's DNA was so perfect, it would have taken many generations for humans to have shorter and shorter life-spans.

 

This is exactly what happened according to the scriptures.

 

Likewise, after Noah's flood, humans would have continued to have shorter and shorter life spans due to genetic entropy.

 

The constant degradation of human DNA (and the degradation of plant DNA), caused not only by mutations, but also by their lifestyles, such as being in constant wars, lowered the life span of humans.

 

Then when technology improved (such as a greater variety of food caused by better growing technology, plus improved transportation technology), humans would have been able to eat a much better variety of foods and get a better variety of nutrients and phytonutrients.  The reasons for short life spans were somewhat overcome, but the deterioration of DNA continued.

 

Today, our life span is about 72 years.  It is kept up mostly by medical technology, food technology, distribution of food channels (e.g. food is now routinely imported daily from Chile into the United States), etc.

 

But other factors continue to hammer away at life spans.  For example, political corruption, corporate greed, war, disease, etc. are keeping life spans from increasing the way they should by the use of modern technology.

 

The point is that the Biblical account of people living for several centuries is perfectly consistent with want geneticists actually observe in accumulating human mutations.

 

Thus, the claims of the Bible fit the actual data observed by geneticists.

 

The claims of the theory of evolution do not fit the data at all.  The fossils found by paleontologists, which date back to 100,000, were of creatures which had very short life spans.

 

 

Radiometric Dating

 

As a side note, where are the bones of Adam and Eve?  The answer is that Adam and Eve were resurrected (see Doctrine and Covenants 138), thus their bones are no longer in the ground.

 

In fact, all of the righteous followers of Christ, who died prior to the death of Christ, were resurrected after Christ was resurrected.  Thus, their bones are not in the earth.

 

At least several people, who died after Christ died, have been resurrected (e.g. the prophet Moroni).  There may be many more who have been resurrected; but how many people have been resurrected, who died after the resurrection of Christ, is not known.

 

The reality is that there were very, very few righteous people on this earth after 100 A.D. (and after 300 A.D. in America).  Thus, accidentally finding the bones of righteous people, who lived between the time of Christ and the 1600s, is not likely to happen.

 

This means that human bones found by paleontologists, of ancient date, such as those who died before Christ (and possibly after Christ), are not the bones of righteous people.

 

These facts may explain why so many of the bones of humans, found by researchers, have so many of the marks of war, brutality, crude living conditions and death at a very young age.  Thus, the "data" (that the bones of ancient, righteous and peaceful people are not found in the ground) again fits the scriptures and the history books.

 

More details on radiometric dating will be discussed in a future chapter.