Notice: If you have something to add to this artlcle, or if you want me to link to your article on astronomy, please send me an email. My email address is at the bottom of this page.

Also at the bottom of this page I link to three other online astronomy dictionaries!!! The first one I list IS GIGANTIC!!! If you open that file (it may take a minute to open) and then click the plus sign on the top bar (i.e. +) several times the size of the text will increase greatly!!!

Also note that many people have PhDs in Astronomy or related fields so I make no attempt to impress anyone who has a PhD in astronomy in this article!!!

If you want to know more than I say about a specific topic, use Wikipedia - it is a massive source for information about astonomy!!!

Here is a blue link to my main article on astronomy (this article links to other articles):
Article: Astronomy

At the very bottom of this page are links to three other (far better than mine) dictionaries of astronomy.

Dictionary Of Astronomy And Cosmology (I Have Links To Two Other Online Astronomy Dictionaries At The Bottom Of This Article)

Accretion Disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffuse material in orbital motion around a massive central body. The central body is typically a star. Friction causes orbiting material in the disk to spiral inward towards the central body. Gravitational and frictional forces compress and raise the temperature of the material, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The frequency range of that radiation depends on the central object's mass. Accretion disks of young stars and protostars radiate in the infrared; those around neutron stars and black holes in the X-ray part of the spectrum. The study of oscillation modes in accretion disks is referred to as diskoseismology. Wikipedia

Alua Alua - The is a specific rock which is thought to have come from another solar system (i.e. it was orbiting a different Sun than our Sun). If this is true, then this is the only object that astronomers have seen which came from another solar system.

Andromeda Galaxy - this is a spiral galaxy approximately 2.5 million light-years (770 kiloparsecs) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way!! The galaxy's name stems from the area of the Earth's sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda.

Some astronomers believe that the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy will some day collide with each other. See this article on Wikipedia:
Andromeda / Milky Way collision

Astronomy - The study of celestial objects that we see in the sky with earth-bound telescopes or telescopes in space (e.g. the Hubble Space Telescope). Of course the James Webb Space Telesope is coming and it will be about 100 times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope. These telescopes are named after well-known and well-respected astronomers.

America is not the only country that has telescopes in space. In fact, there are more than 100 space telescopes, but the American space telescopes are arguably the best by far. The Hubble and soon the James Webb space telescopes have no competition that I know of. Here is a list of space telescopes:
List of space telescopes

Here is a list of the largest optical telescopes in the 20th century:
List of largest optical telescopes in the 20th century

Big Bang - Due to the discovery of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, and for other reasons, the Big Bang is generally accepted as the explosion that created the Universe.

Wikipedia: Big Bang

Big Rip - This is the untimate fate of the Universe according to some astronomers. It is a hypothetical cosmological model in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future.

Black Holes - Every galaxy is thought to have a supermassive "black hole" at its center. Black holes are very, very small, but their gravitation power is unimaginable, supposedly equal to several million or even billions of Suns. It may be that this black hole is what keeps a galaxy from spinning apart.

Wikipedia: Black hole

Brown Dwarf Stars - See the entry for Red Dwarf stars.

Bubbles - there may be different kinds of "bubbles" in different places. But this aricle is about one type of bubble:
Article: Huge Bubbles Found At Milky Way's Heart Could Signal A Black Hole Eruption

Well, they don't have a clue what they are talking about, but neither do I.

Bubbles - also copy and paste this into Google without the quotes
Bubbles in space

Cold Quasars, discovered by Allison Kirkpatrick, are galaxies featuring an abundance of cold gas that still can produce new stars despite having a quasar at the center. This breakthrough finding overturns assumptions about the maturation of galaxies and may represent a phase of every galaxy's lifecycle that was unknown until now.

See the entry for Quasars.

Cosmic Rays change the chemicals on the surface of all objects that they shine on. Cosmic Rays travel at up to 99% the speed of light.

Cosmology - The study of why things in outer space have happened (e.g. why the Big Bang happened).

Dark Energy is causing the expansion of the Universe to accelerate!! Dark energy doesn't make the Universe accelerate because of an outward-pushing pressure or an anti-gravitational force; it makes the Universe accelerate because of how its energy density changes (or, more accurately, doesn't change) as the Universe continues to expand

Dark Matter - Fasten Your Seatbelt!!!!! Dark Matter is almost certainly what Nicola Tesla called aether and aether fills the Universe. But scientists will never in a million years use the word Tesla because Tesla could pull free energy from the aether, which is what the substance that fills the Universe should be called!!! No one makes any money from pulling free energy from the aether so Tesla is totally blacklisted by "scientists" (as they call themselves)!!!

Einstein's special theory of relativity is true because of the aether!!! Einstein's model provides zero causality!!! But if one object is traveling faster than another object, relative to the aether, the faster object will incur more resistance and thus "slower time because of ather's resistance." Eintstein's model does not provide any causality!!!

But aether does in the same sense that you will experience more resistance if you stick you arm out the window of your car when it is going 60 miles per hour as opposed to 30 miles per hour!!!

It is claimed that Dark Matter consists of five times more matter than the matter we can see.

It is quite possbile that aether, Dark Matter and Higgs Boson are all the same thing. Because Tesla is blacklisted by scientists because he could create free energy, you rarely see his name anymore. But Tesla was probably the smartest scientist who ever lived. The lights that light your room are because of Tesla and his alternating current.

I have an entire website about Tesla physics, which has a free eBook about experiments we did at Sprint. Here is the link:
Tesla Physics website

Direct Collapse

Direct Collapse has to do with the formation of supermassive black holes (SMBHs).

Forbes: There's a big problem when we look at the brightest, most energetic objects we can see in the early stages of the Universe. Shortly after the first stars and galaxies form, we find the first quasars: extremely luminous sources of radiation that span the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio up through the X-ray. Only a supermassive black hole could possibly serve as the engine for one of these cosmic behemoths, and the study of active objects like quasars, blazars, and AGNs all support this idea. But there's a problem: it may not be possible to make a black hole so large, so quickly, to explain these young quasars that we see. Unless, that is, there's a new way to make black holes beyond what we previously thought.

If you try to build a black hole in the conventional way, by having massive stars go supernova, form small black holes, and have them merge together, you run into problems. Star formation is a violent process, as when nuclear fusion ignites, the intense radiation burns off the remaining gas that would otherwise go into forming progressively more and more massive stars. From nearby star-forming regions to the most distant ones we've ever observed, this same process seems to be in place, preventing stars (and, hence, black holes) beyond a certain mass from ever forming.

It is very complicated. Copy and paste this string into a browser and read the article:

Dwarf Planets - While there are many dwarf planets in our solar system, the number of dwarf planets depends on where you draw the line!!! Currently there are only five official dwarf planets:
1) Pluto
2) Ceres
3) Eris
4) Makemake
5) Humea

All of the dwarf planets that I know of are in the Kuiper Belt. Two other terms which are very similar to the term dwarf planet are Minor Planet and Planetoid.

Earth 2.0 - a code name for the search by astronomers for a planet just like Earth in the sense that it was a planet that could support life. By definition it would be an exoplanet!!

Eggs - dense, compact pockets of interstellar gas called evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs). Hubble found the "EGGs," appropriately enough, in the Eagle nebula, a nearby star-forming region 6,500 light- years away in the constellation Serpens.

Exoplanet - A planet which is orbiting a sun (i.e. star) which is outside of our Solar System. Nearly 4,000 exoplanets have been discovered and thousand more are under consideration. Assuming there are 200 billion stars in the Milky Way, it can be hypothesized that there are 11 billion potentially habitable Earth-sized planets in the Milky Way, rising to 40 billion if planets orbiting the numerous red dwarfs are included.

By definition, our solar system is not an exoplanet because by definition the term only applies to systems which are outside of our solar system!!!

Flare star - a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes. It is believed that the flares on flare stars are analogous to solar flares in that they are due to the magnetic energy stored in the stars' atmospheres. The brightness increase is across the spectrum, from X rays to radio waves. The first known flare stars (V1396 Cygni and AT Microscopii) were discovered in 1924. However, the best-known flare star is UV Ceti, first observed to flare in 1948. Today similar flare stars are classified as UV Ceti type variable stars (using the abbreviation UV) in variable star catalogs such as the General Catalogue of Variable Stars.

Most flare stars are dim red dwarfs, although recent research indicates that less massive brown dwarfs might also be capable of flaring. The more massive RS Canum Venaticorum variables (RS CVn) are also known to flare, but it is understood that these flares are induced by a companion star in a binary system which causes the magnetic field to become tangled. Additionally, nine stars similar to the Sun had also been seen to undergo flare events prior to the flood of superflare data from the Kepler observatory. It has been proposed that the mechanism for this is similar to that of the RS CVn variables in that the flares are being induced by a companion, namely an unseen Jupiter-like planet in a close orbit.

At some point the flare is so large it is called a mega-flare.
Just wait until the James Webb Space Telescope gets into space - the one trillion number won't last very long!!!

Wikipedia: Flare star

Galaxies are the main component of the Universe. There are estimated to be 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) galaxies in the Universe!!! Of course it is thought that the Big Bang created these galaxies, though many galaxies are currently under construction (see the word "Nebula" below).

Just wait until the James Webb Space Telescope gets into space - the one trillion number won't last very long!!!

Galaxy Cluster - as the name implies this is a cluster of galaxies that has some defining characteristic. A galaxy cluster can have from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity. Examples are:
Virgo Supercluster
Laniakea Supercluster (which we are in via the Milky Way Galaxy)
Shapley Supercluster
Perseus-Pisces Supercluster
Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster
and others!!!

Galaxies Collide With Each Other!!! You would think that one or more Gods created each galaxy (i.e. the stars in that galaxies). So you would assume that galaxies never collide!! Well apparantly they do collide!! See this interesting web page:
When Galaxies Collide! Gorgeous Hubble Photo Gives Glimpse of Milky Way's Fate

Well, get out your raincoat because our Milky Way Galaxy is going to collide with Andromeda!!!
We Finally Know When Our Milky Way Will Crash Into the Andromeda Galaxy!!!

Gamma Ray Burst - This is on one of many distant events that could wipe out life on this puny earth in a heartbeat!!! It may have been a Gamma Ray Burst that wiped out 9,000,000 speces of animals on this planet before, but this is somewhat speculative. The next paragraph is from Wikipedia:

"Gamma-ray burst progenitors are the types of celestial objects that can emit gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs show an extraordinary degree of diversity. They can last anywhere from a fraction of a second to many minutes. Bursts could have a single profile or oscillate wildly up and down in intensity, and their spectra are highly variable unlike other objects in space. The near complete lack of observational constraint led to a profusion of theories, including evaporating black holes, magnetic flares on white dwarfs, accretion of matter onto neutron stars, antimatter accretion, supernovae, hypernovae, and rapid extraction of rotational energy from supermassive black holes, among others."

They are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several hours.

No one knows why they happen, but two theories are: 1) a pair of nutron stars collide with each other or 2) a neutron star and a black hole colloide with each other.

Giant Star - Giant stars do not last very long, perhaps 10 million years, because they use up hydrogen faster.

Goldilocks Zone - This is the habitable zone around a star where the temperature is just right - not too hot and not too cold - for liquid water to exist on an planet. Because liquid water is required for life, it essentially represents the zone where life on a planet could exist.

Habital Zone - the orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet can have liquid water. This term is used in case there are other inhabited planets (and I am sure there are many of them).

The heliosphere is the vast, bubble-like region of space which surrounds and is created by the Sun. In plasma physics terms, this is the cavity formed by the Sun in the surrounding interstellar medium. (Wikipedia)

Hot Jupiter - This is a Jupiter type of planet (i.e. a gas giant) which is orbiting another star. This type of planet orbits its star much more closely than Mercury orbits our Sun so a Hot Jupiter is much hotter than Mercury. See the phrase: "tidal locked". What adds to the massive heat on these types of planet is that they are "Hot Jupiters" and have a heavy gas cloud surrounding the planet which traps the heat from the star, much like Venus has in our solar system.

Hotter Than Hell - a phrase I use for a celestial object which might be used by God as a very painful punishment caused by excessive heat!!! Mercury, Venus, Hot Juipters, etc. would qualify as being hotter than hell!!! The phrase "Outer Darkness" (see below) is actually a phrase used by the Savior to describe massive punishments. I am not aware that the Savior described any punishment as being very hot, but it is hard to image that such punishments do not exist.

Hottest Spot In The Universe - The heat is created by galaxies colliding with each other. I would stay away from this section of the Universe:
Hottest spot in the universe found

Hubble Deepfield - Some time ago astronomers found a dark space in the Universe where there were no galaxies. To test the claim that there were no galaxies in that spot the Hubble telescope was pointed at that small spot for a certain length of time. When done that small spot was shot to contain thousands of galaxies!!! That experience is called the Hubble Deepfield.

Intergalactic Space - the space between stars is known as interstellar space, and so the space between galaxies is called intergalactic space. These are the vast empty spaces that sit between galaxies. ... The density of material is higher near galaxies, and lower in the midpoint between galaxies.

Interstellar Medium - The interstellar medium is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space

Interstellar Cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies. Put differently, an interstellar cloud is a denser-than-average region of the interstellar medium, (ISM), the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. Depending on the density, size, and temperature of a given cloud, its hydrogen can be neutral, making an H I region; ionized, or plasma making it an H II region; or molecular, which are referred to simply as molecular clouds, or sometime dense clouds. Neutral and ionized clouds are sometimes also called diffuse clouds. An interstellar cloud is formed by the gas and dust particles from a red giant in its later life. Wikipedia

Interstellar Space - The space between the stars. For interstellar space to be something different, then there must be some defined boundary between the space near a star and the space in between stars.

Kepler Space Telescope - this telescope in space is looking for exoplanets.

Kuiper Belt - This is a spherical section of our solar system, with the Sun at the center. This section of our solar system includes perhaps a dozen dwarf planets and for some distance beyond these dwarf planets. It is an area of our solar system that has a lot of chunks of ice and chunks of rocks (some are dwarf planet sized). There is a gigantic empty space between where the Kuiper Belt ends and the Oort Cloud begins. For more information see the article on Outer Darkness:
Article: Outer Darkness

Life - Astonomers fairly frequently claim that "life" came from a supernova or some other astronomical event. While many chemical elements on this planet likely came from supernovas, "life" itself did not come from a supernova!!! Astronomers in general don't know anything about "life"!!!

Life itself comes from cells!!!! No supernova ever created a cell, much less a living cell!!! I don't know of any astronomer who knows anything about cells, much less how cells combine together to create a living thing!!! LIFE/CELLS CAME FROM GOD!!! This is another example of how some scientists want to distance themself from those who believe in God.

Maga Flares / Steller Flares - a mega flare does not depend on the size of the star, but rather the relative power and size and intensity of the eruption. Another term for this I would assume is "superflare." A superflare can be more than 10,000 times more powerful than a regular flare.

See the entry for Flare star

Magnetar - a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field. See Wikipedia.

Massive Red Supergiant - After a helium-burning red giant runs out of helium fuel in its core, the star's core starts to collapse and heat up. This causes the outer layers of the star to expand and cool, similar to the process that occurred after the star ran out of hydrogen fuel and left the main sequence. As the star swells larger and larger, it eventually becomes a red supergiant.

Extremely massive supergiants can generate high enough pressure and temperature to fuse elements even heavier than carbon and oxygen. Near the end of the red supergiant phase, a high mass star will develop several "onion layers" of heavier and heavier elements.

Eventually stars this massive die explosive deaths and become type II supernova.

Here is an article on this subject:
Article: Will Earth survive when the sun becomes a red giant?

Milky Way Galaxy - this is the galaxy that we live on. It is thought that there are one or two black holes at the center of our galaxy. Our galaxy is estimated to contain 200,000,000,000 stars (200 billion). A broader guess would be between 100,000,000,000 and 400,000,000,000 stars.

Our galaxy is about 100,000 light years across. There are likely to be billions of rogue planets in our galaxy that are aimlessly wandering around.

And don't forget there are more than one trillion galaxies!!!

Musca (Latin for "the fly") is a small constellation in the deep southern sky. It was one of 12 ... The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "Mus". The official constellation. Wikipedia

Nebula - A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases where stars are formed!!! Without nebula there would be no Milky Way Galaxy and we would not exist!!! The size of Nebulas are not measured in miles they are measured in light years!!!

Here is an excellent article by NASA on nebula:
Article: What Is a Nebula?

There are about 20,000 Nebula in the Milky Way Galaxy which are churning out stars. The "Eagle Nebula," also known as the "Star Queen Nebula," is a good example. See this picture:
File: PillarsOfCreation.jpeg

By the way, the left column of the Eagle Nebula is seventy light-years tall and in one place it is fifty-five light-years across!!!!! It took God awhile to make that one!!! I should note that the gas that Nebula are made from is not explosive!!! How do I know that?? If the gas which makes up the Nebula was explosive when a new star was ignited in the Nebula, the entire Nebula would blow up!!!

It is said that a Nebula is made of 70% hydrogen (which is very explosive). Helium is about 28%, which is not explosive.

An example of how they form would be gas and dust thown out by the explosion of a dying star, such as a Supernova.

Here is my question: When a star if formed in a Nebula, how does that star get moved from the Nebula to where it belongs in the Galaxy??? Well, Boy Scout troops are not the correct answer!!! Nor are moving companies that move furniture from one city to another city. Sorry, the answer is God!!! That is the problem with astonomers, they never give God any credit. Gee, that sounds just like the theory of evolution applied to outer space!!

Examples of nebula:
Carina Nebua
Crab Nebua
Eagle Nebua
Orion Nebua
Ring Nebua
Tarantula Nebua

Also see:
commons Wikipedia: Nebula

Webster Kehr's Nebula Theory (9/2/2020)

My theory is that there is a cycle between the nebula (which are an integral part of the galaxy) and the stars in the galaxy. Here is how it works. When a star is running out of fuel, and needs to be replaced, a star in the nebula that is ready to be put into the galaxy (which is in a nebula) is taken to the location of the star.

The weak star is then taken to the nebula that it's replacement came from. In other words, a star in the galaxy and a star in a nebula are exchanged!!!

This allows the weak star to be made strong again while it is in the nebula. When it is made strong again it is "available" to be exchanged with a star in the galaxy, though it does not need to replace the same star.

If this were not the case, then what would God do with all of the weak stars after they are replaced by a star from the nebula???

Think of a nebula as a hospital for stars which are running out of fuel!! The difference is that when a star is ready to be taken from the nebula and put into the galaxy, that the star does not have to replace the same star that it did before. This flexibility would be required for this system to work.

Neutron Star - A neutron star is the collapsed core of a giant star which before collapse had a total mass of between 10 and 29 solar masses. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars, excluding black holes, hypothetical white holes, quark stars and strange stars.

Google: In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. ... The intense radiation of most observed GRBs is thought to be released during a supernova or superluminous supernova as a high-mass star implodes to form a neutron star or a black hole.

In other words, only black holes are more dense than neutron stars!!! As an example, about half a million Earths could fit in a Neutron Star about 12 miles across!!!

Also see:
Wikipedia: Neutron Star

Oort Cloud - The Oort Cloud is a GIGANTIC SPHERE of rocks, small planets, mountains in space, ice and perhaps other things. At the center of this sphere is our Sun. The Oort Cloud is much, much bigger and it is rar, far beyond the Kuiper Belt (which includes dwarf planets such as Pluto), which is also a giant sphere with the Sun at its center!!! The Kuiper Belt is beyond the planet Neptune.

For example, imagine a gigantic beach ball as tall as the Empire State Building. At the very center of this beachball is a BB (yes, which BB guns shoot). The BB would represent our Sun and the beachball itself would represent the Oort Cloud. It is a gigantic spherical area of dwarf planets, rocks, ice and who knows what else. The Oort Cloud has the Sun at its center. It is far, far from our planet Earth. This is also discussed in the article on Outer Darkness:
Article: Outer Darkness

Outer Darkness - a phrase used by Jesus Christ three times in the Bible in the book of Matthew. The article I link to talks a lot about the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud and the concept, introduced by Christ, of Outer Darkness!!! I have an article on this phrase on this website:
Article: Outer Darkness

Planets From Hell (buzz word) - You definitely want to Google this phrase: "Planets From Hell"
You will get about 11,000 hits - very interesting stuff. Venus is a planet from hell in our solar system because its thick clouds trap the Sun's heat on Venus. Because of this Venus is a lot hotter than Mercury!!! But Venus is no where near as hot as a "Hot Jupiter" that is "Tidal Locked"!!

Protoplanet - A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior. Protoplanets are thought to form out of kilometer-sized planetesimals that gravitationally perturb each other's orbits and collide, gradually coalescing into the dominant planets - Wikipedia.

Essentially these are objects that are thought to become planets at some future time. Just like the atheists and evolutionists think that humans "evolved" from bonobos or some other primate, astronomers believe that our Sun and planet Earth "evolved" over time by a series of accidents!!! It is the astronomer's version of Darwinian evolution.

Protoplanetary disk - a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star. Wikipedia

Protostar - A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud. The protostellar phase is the earliest one in the process of stellar evolution. For a low mass star (i.e. that of the Sun or lower), it lasts about 500,000 years!!!

The phase begins when a molecular cloud fragment first collapses under the force of self-gravity and an opaque, pressure supported core forms inside the collapsing fragment. It ends when the infalling gas is depleted, leaving a pre-main-sequence star, which contracts to later become a main-sequence star at the onset of hydrogen fusion.
Wikipedia: Protostar

Proxima Centauri - a small, low-mass star located 4.244 light-years away from the Sun in the southern constellation of Centaurus. Its Latin name means the "nearest [star] of Centaurus". This object was discovered in 1915 by Robert Innes and it is the nearest-known star to the Sun!!!

Proxima Centauri b - an exoplanet orbiting in the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.

Pulsar (Stay Far Away From One Of These) - Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions, which occur when a massive star reaches the end of its life and explodes. ... Scientists have assumed that the spin was caused by the conservation of angular momentum from a star that was spinning before it exploded.

Here is another take on Pulsars:

  • "Pulsars are small, rapidly spinning neutron stars left over after a star roughly eight times more massive than our own sun dies in a supernova, a spectacular stellar explosion. As pulsars rotate, particles are ejected along their poles.

    And while "normal" pulsars rotate tens of times per second, there are millisecond pulsars that can rotate hundreds of times per second, something astronomers didn't even think was possible until the first discovery made in 1982.

Here is an artist rendition of a Pulsar:
Article: Astronomers find fast-spinning 'clocks in the sky' using gaming tech

The fastest known pulsar is PSR J1748-2446ad spins at 716 times a second!!! The second fastest is 707 rotations per second.

There are about 2,000 known Pulsars. Almost by definition a Pular would slice a human into thousands of different pieces in a few minutes!!! You want to stay away from pulsars, that is not where you want to go on vacation!!

Also see:
Wikipedia: Pulsar

Quark Star - Some massive stars collapse to form neutron stars at the end of their life cycle, as has been both observed and explained theoretically. Under the extreme temperatures and pressures inside neutron stars, the neutrons are normally kept apart by a degeneracy pressure, stabilizing the star and hindering further gravitational collapse.

However, it is hypothesized that under even more extreme temperature and pressure, the degeneracy pressure of the neutrons is overcome, and the neutrons are forced to merge and dissolve into their constituent quarks, creating an ultra-dense phase of quark matter based on densely packed quarks. In this state, a new equilibrium is supposed to emerge, as a new degeneracy pressure between the quarks, as well as repulsive electromagnetic forces, will occur and hinder gravitational collapse.

If these ideas are correct, quark stars might occur, and be observable, somewhere in the universe. Theoretically, such a scenario is seen as scientifically plausible, but it has been impossible to prove both observationally and experimentally, because the very extreme conditions needed for stabilizing quark matter cannot be created in any laboratory nor observed directly in nature. The stability of quark matter, and hence the existence of quark stars, is for these reasons among the unsolved problems in physics.

Quasars or quasi-stellar radio source are a supermassive black hole "on steroids." They are the brightest objects in the Universe. In fact, they can be brighter than the rest of the galaxy they are part of.

Quasars live only in galaxies with supermassive black holes; black holes that contain billions of times the mass of our sun!!! In fact, supermassive black holes can turn into a Quasar.

There are estimated to be more than 500,000 Quasars!!!! Don't go to any of them on vacation!!! You want to stay away from Quasars!!!

Although light cannot escape from the black hole itself, some signals can break free around its edges. While some dust and gas fall into the black hole, other particles are accelerated away from it at near the speed of light. The particles stream away from the black hole in jets above and below it, transported by one of the most powerful particle accelerators in the universe.

Quasars jets are perpendicular from the center of the Quasar and go in both directions from the center of the Quasar.

Quasars have been around since roughly the Big Bang. This is proven by the fact that they can be seen in very, very old galaxies.

Quasars are the most powerful objects in the Universe!!! In my opinion, God uses Quasars to move galaxies around.

Here is an artist rendition of a Quasar:
What is the difference between quasars, pulsars and neutron stars?

Also see:
Wikipedia: Quasar

Radio Pulsar Beam (Cornell University). If you want to know how astronomers talk to each other, study the next paragraph:

Taxonomy of radio pulsar profiles is mostly based on a system of Ptolemaic artificiality, consisting of separated rings and a core, arbitrarily located at disparate altitudes in the magnetosphere. Diversity of observed profile shapes clearly exceeds the interpretive capability of such conal model. Moreover, bifurcated features observed in pulsar profiles imply a system of fan beams radially extending away from the dipole axis. The bifurcations can be understood as the imprint of the elementary radiation pattern of the long-sought radio emission mechanism, thus identifying the latter. Their size, however, is several times larger than implied by the curvature of magnetic dipole lines.

Here I show that the illusion of disconnected rings and the size of bifurcated features can be explained through a natural geometry which combines the properties of both the cone and the fan beam. It is a flaring spiral which makes several revolutions around the dipole axis on its way to leave the magnetosphere. Such geometry is consistent with a stream of outflowing and laterally drifting plasma. The bifurcated components are so wide, because the curvature on such a spiral is larger than that of the dipolar magnetic field, hence they are consistent with the extraordinary mode curvature radiation.
The geometry of a radio pulsar beam (Cornell University)

Red Dwarf Star - A red dwarf star, also called M dwarf or M-type star, are by far the most numerous type of star in the Universe and the smallest type of hydrogen-burning star. Red dwarf stars have masses from about 0.06 to 0.8 times that of our Sun. (Objects smaller than red dwarf stars are called brown dwarfs and do not shine through the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen.) Lighter stars are much more plentiful than heavier stars, and red dwarfs are thus the most numerous type of star. In the Milky Way Galaxy, about three-fourths of the stars are red dwarfs. The proportion is even higher in elliptical galaxies.

The day will come when all of the stars which are similar to our Sun will die out, leaving Red Dwarfs even more dominant than they are now. Red Dwarfs do not burn fuel as fast as the stars like our Sun. Red Dwarf planets can last for trillions of years though they will become blue dwarfs long before they run out of fuel!!!

Also see:
Wikipedia: Red Dwarf

Red Supergiant Or Red Giant

I discusssed this above but I will say a little more here.

A red supergiant is an aging giant star that has consumed its core's supply of hydrogen fuel and collapses into a White Dwarf. Helium has accumulated in the core, and hydrogen is now undergoing nuclear fusion in the outer shells. These shells then expand, and the now cooler star takes on a red color. They are the largest known stars.

Also see:
Wikipedia: Red supergiant star

Rogue Planet - A rogue planet is a planet that is in space but it does not orbit around any star (i.e. any Sun). There are estimated to be 200 billion rogue planets just in our Galaxy. Here is a very good article on this subject:
Scientific American: Wandering in the Void, Billions of Rogue Planets without a Home.

Anyone who is standing on a rogue planet, by themself, will know the ultimate definition of "darkness", and they will be very, very cold and unbelievably lonely!!! I mention this because being on a rogue planet may be one of the punishments called "Outer Darkness by the Savior Jesus Christ three times in the Book of Matthew in the Bible.
Article: Outer Darkness

Rogue Suns / Rogue Stars / Rogue Black Holes (no kidding) / Intergalactic Stars / Moving Stars - if there were no God, there would be no stars, much less galaxies!!! But if stars could be made by the mindless accidents of evolution, every star would be a rogue star just wandering around in space!!! The fact that there are a trillion galaxies is one of the top reasons that God must not only exist, but that He must be incomprehensible in intelligence and power!!!

Nevertheless, there is such a thing as rogue stars. They are also known as Intergalactic stars. I would assume that most of them, if not all of them, are being moved from where they were created in a nebula to where that sun (i.e. star) is supposed to be put in the galaxy the nebula it came from is located.

It is hard to imagine a rogue black hole, but one of them has been discovered. I suspect that God is moving a black hole to start a new galaxy in open space. But what happened to the galaxy it came from??? Maybe a black hole was pulled out of a Quasar.

Sagittarius A Star (or Sagittarious A*) - this is a bright and very compact astronomical radio source at the center of the Milky Way, near the border of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius about 5.6° south of the ecliptic. Wikipedia says that it is the location of a supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.

It is almost certain that a black hole is at the center of every galaxy!!! If there were no black hole in the center of a galaxy the stars in a galaxy would go in a straight line and would fly away from the center of the galaxy and the galaxy would fly apart and cease to exist!!! So it is obvious that every galaxy has a black hole in the center of the galaxy.

Most astronomers never mention God as a force in the Universe.

Solar Flare Or Steller Flare - see entry for Flare star

Star Apocalypse - this is when a star suddenly dies or blows up. The star will then become a white dwarf.

Star Sizes And Lifetime - Some stars are 100 times larger than our Sun. A typical star will live about 10 million years. However, in general the bigger a star is the shorter is its lifetime.

Strange Star - A strange star is a quark star made of strange quark matter. They form a subgroup under the quark star category.

Strange stars might exist without regard to the Bodmer-Witten assumption of stability at near-zero temperatures and pressures, as strange quark matter might form and remain stable at the core of neutron stars, in the same way as ordinary quark matter could. Such strange stars will naturally have a crust layer of neutron star material. The depth of the crust layer will depend on the physical conditions and circumstances of the entire star and on the properties of strange quark matter in general. Stars partially made up of quark matter (including strange quark matter) are also referred to as hybrid stars.

This theoretical strange star crust is proposed to be a possible reason behind fast radio bursts (FRBs). This is still theoretical, but there is good evidence that the collapse of these strange star crusts may be an FRB point of origin.

Sun (Our Sun)

Sun (our Sun) does a lot more than just provide light and heat!!! It is also our guardian!!! For example, it protects us from Supernova which is a cosmic ray. Our Sun is about 4.5 billion years old!!!

Supernova - This is the death of a giant star!!! First the star implodes and then it EXPLODES. A supernova is a powerful and luminous stellar explosion. This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is triggered into runaway nuclear fusion. A supernova can briefly create more light than the light from an entire galaxy!!!

On average, a supernova will occur once in every 50 years for a galaxy the size of our galaxy.

Supernovas create the heavy elements which are needed for life!!!

It is very, very, very rare when astronomers see a supernova when it begins because the exposion is never predictable in advance. In order for astronomers to be guaranteed to see a supernova they would have to have enough telescopes to see every one of the trillion galaxies that we know about, continuously, for 24 hours a day year around for both land and sea and oceans!!! Ain't going to happen!!!
What Is a Supernova?

Things That Could Wipe Out Humanity In a Heartbeat!!!

This is from another website that I will link to after the list:
1) High energy solar flare
2) Asteroid impact (it would have to be a big asteroid)
3) Expanding sun
4) Local gamma ray burst
5) Nearby supernovas
6) Moving stars

Here is the website:
Web Page: Six cosmic catastrophes that could wipe out life on Earth

Tidal Locked - a planet which is a Hot Jupiter and the same side of the Hot Jupiter is always facing the star!!! The heat on that side of the planet would be unimaginably hot!!!

Venus - while Venus is a obviously a planet in our solar system, I mention it because Venus is much hotter than Mercury!!! How can this be so??? The reason is that Venus has thick clouds that trap the heat from the Sun, thus making it "hotter than hell"!!!

Weird Stuff - Gamma Rays - I do not think there is any end to the weird stuff in the Universe. Here is an article about one of the weird things going on:
One of the Fastest-Spinning Stars in the Galaxy Is Spitting Out Gamma Rays

Weird Stuff - Cosmic Rays - Your umbrella won't protect you from these things:
What Are Cosmic Rays?

Weird Stuff - Pulsars - These are other things your unbrella will not protect you from:
Astronomers Catch A Pulsar Glitching

Weird Stuff - Quasars - Many astronomers consider that quasars will end humanity in the blink of an eye. They certainly could!!! Well, they will have to stand in line!!!
Article: Quasars: Brightest Objects in the Universe

More On Quasars
Article: Quasars in the Neighborhood

Weird Stuff - A List - This would not be my "top 6" things that could wipe out humanity, but it is a very good list:
Article: Six cosmic catastrophes that could wipe out life on Earth

White Dwarf - A white dwarf is a dead star that has run out of fuel. It is also called a degenerate dwarf. It is the stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth.
Wikipedia: White Dwarf

White Hole - in general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime and singularity which cannot be entered from the outside, although energy-matter and light can escape from it. In other words, this is a purely theoretical concept.

Well, you have to have a sense of humor to talk about these things, which probably do not exist in the real world!!! They are completely theoretical "reverse black holes".

Zombie Star - typically, a supernova wipes out the exploding white dwarf star that is unfortunate enough to be caught in the middle of it. It turns out that some stars may survive their own personal apocalypses, leaving behind what NASA describes as a "zombie star."

A team of astronomers combed through data from the Hubble Space Telescope and found a star that appears to have survived (after a fashion) a weak supernova. This type of weak supernova is called a Type Iax, not to be confused with its brighter brethren, which are supernovas called Type Ia. The zombie-producing supernova has been named "SN 2012Z." It sits about 110 million light-years away from Earth.
Website: Hubble discovers 'zombie star' haunting the universe

My Comments About What Will Wipe Out Humanity First (The Race Is On)

Many people, including myself, believe that God exists and that God will protect His children from the many events in the Universe which could wipe us out in a heartbeat. So I don't lay awake at night wondering if some Quasar or Asteroid or Supernova, etc. is going to wipe out humanity. We are perfectly safe!!!

More Extensive Online Astronomy Dictionaries

While there are many dictionaries of astronomy, the best way to search for them with Google is to use the search phrase (with the quotes): "Astronomy Dictionary".

Here is probably the best of the online astronomy dictionaries, it is 524 pages long!!!
Gigantic Astronomy Dictionary

Here is a very good online astronomy dictionary by Sky At Night Magazine and it is free and online:
Astronomy Dictionary

Here is another very large dictionary of astronomy which is free and online:
The Guide To The Universe / Astronomy Dictionary.

Actually you can put this phrase into Google: "Dictionary Of Astronomy" and you will get more than 557,000 hits. Like many of them, mine is free.

Let me know if you have anything to add to my list!!!

Here is my email address, which is camouflaged to avoid web crawlers.

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