More Than 400 Reasons The Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Before beginning the large list, let us list a few of the major reasons the theory of evolution cannot be true:
1) The physical constants (e.g. the gravitational constant) could not have come to exist by accident,
2) DNA can be created by humans, but DNA cannot be sequenced by humans. And accidents (i.e. by evolution)!! cannot create DNA. Furthermore, even if DNA could be created by accidents, the nucleotides certainly could not be "sequenced" (i.e. put into a special ordering) to make DNA the most sophisticated computer programs/data bases on this planet.
3) If you connected the DNA of every species of plants and animals on earth, one after the other, including both male and female DNA where applicable, the total length of the DNA of all species would be more than ONE QUADRILLION nucleotides. Yet, there is zero evidence of any defective DNA in the creation of all of the species on this planet,
4) Once a DNA strand is created, it cannot be changed, it can only be damaged!! This is critical because it means that no DNA could have been created by modifying the DNA of a less sophisticated species. In other words, the DNA for every species had to be created independently of the DNA of any other species,
5) The vast number of permutations of any size of DNA for any animal, would create more deformed and dead animals than there are atoms in this Universe,
6) The massive intelligence on the DNA of all animals is literally beyond human comprehension (e.g. scientists have never even decoded the DNA of an ant),
7) Every DNA strand on earth is vastly more sophisticated than any human-designed computer program,
8) Randomly (i.e. by evolution) changing the DNA of an animal (even if it could be done), expecting a new and improved animal would be created, would be like changing the object code (i.e. randomly adding bits, randomly deleting bits, randomly moving bits and randomly changing bits of the object code) of the most sophisticated computer program on earth, using a random number generator, and expecting the new program will have new and improved functions!! This is nonsense,
9) Male and female issues, for many, many species, eliminates any chance that evolution is true because of the sophistication of the alignment of male and female DNA, as just one example,
10) Not only is DNA too sophisticated to be created and sequenced by accident; the cells that DNA resides in are also amazingly sophisticated. There are more than 950 technical terms used in the study of Cell Biology!!
11) The Sixteen Cells Paradox (see the home page for a link to an article on this mystery)
There are many other major reasons. In summary, God is a creative force, but evolution is not a creative force, it is simply the claim that there is no God and that everything in the Universe, including the Universe itself (i.e. an accidental Big Bang) was created purely by a series of pure accidents!!
If there was a Big Bang, and there seems to be evidence for a Big Bang, it was a project of God!!
But it is worse than that, the theory of evolution is literally a mirror-image of the doctrines of most churches.
The evolution debate is between the vain imaginations of the atheists and evolutionists versus the rock-solid scientific facts of the creation scientists.
Now let us look at the more than 400 reasons evolution cannot be true, which are listed below. These are reasons that "accidents" could not have done what the atheists and evolutionists claim that "accidents" (i.e. evolution) have done.
More Than 400 Reasons Why The Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
The "theory of evolution" is in two parts. One part, called "natural selection," is the claim that stronger species can eliminate weaker species. In other words, natural selection is an elimination process whereby one strong species eliminates members of a weaker species (though the weaker species does not necessarily go extinct). This part of the theory of evolution, the "elimination" part, is perfectly true but has ABSOLUTELY NOTHING to do with the creation of a new species. It is purely an elimination process.
The other part of the theory of evolution is that every species on this planet came to exist by a long series of "accidents," which are collectively called "evolution." This part of the theory of evolution, the "creation via accidents" part, is completely false!!
Prior to the discovery of DNA in 1953, the theory of evolution made perfect sense. But with the discovery of DNA in 1953, the theory of evolution suddenly became scientific nonsense!!
The reason the theory of evolution suddenly became scientific nonsense is that it is now understood that human DNA is literally the most sophisticated computer program on this planet!!!
In fact, the top 1,000,000 most sophisticated computer programs on earth are the DNA of over a million different DNA strands of animals and plants. Every one of these DNA strands is a computer program beyond human comprehension. Scientists today are not even able to understand the DNA of an ant!!
And where are the failures of evolution? The entire Universe would be filled with the failures of the theory of evolution trying to create a single new species.
Today, there are literally hundreds of reasons the theory of evolution cannot be true.
This article is a list of hundreds of reasons that accidents could not have created all species that exist on this earth.
So the obvious question becomes: "if the theory of evolution is total scientific nonsense, why is the theory of evolution taught in almost every science class in the United States?"
The reason has nothing to do with science. The theory of evolution is an outstanding recruiting tool for atheists and evolutionists who cannot bring themselves to believe that there is a God who is smarter than they are. These kinds of people, along with others who do not understand the scientific issues, control almost all school boards and/or biology classes in the United States.
However, I should admit that many adults, even in the education field, are deceived by all of the supposed "evidence" for the theory of evolution.
I should also mention that the term "unique species" should mean exactly the same thing as a "unique DNA structure." Beware of tricky definitions whereby variety within the same species, for example, two animals, such as two breeds of dogs (which have the same DNA structure), are claimed to be two different "species"!!!!!
If you want more details about their deceptive definitions, seven chapters in one of the free eBooks on this website are used to expose the massive use of tricky definitions by atheists and evolutionists!!
Also see the "Home Page" of this website for a more general discussion of these and other high-level issues.
Where Did God Come From?
Many students, when they are told that God created all things, reply with a question: "if God created all things, then were did God come from?" This quote from Brigham Young explains where God came from:
"Many have tried to penetrate to the First Cause of all things [e.g. the origin of God], but it would be as easy for an ant to number the grains of sand on this earth. It is not for man, which his limited intelligence, to grasp eternity in his comprehension ... It would be as easy for a gnat to trace the history of man back to his origin as for man to fathom the First Cause of all things, life the veil of eternity, and reveal the mysteries that have been sought after by philosophers from the beginning."
There is also an article on this website which goes into more detail on this subject:
Where Did God Come From?
Note: Items highlighted in red are EXTREME examples of why evolution cannot be true
Astronomy (see also: Gravity) - Galaxies, Clusters and Superclusters of Galaxies
1) Number of galaxies is 1 TRILLION - where did they come from?
2) Many issues to create a Galaxy - gravitation, aether, etc.
3) Could humans create their own sun and put it in space?
4) So how did accidents create our Sun?
5) Our sun a million times larger than our earth
6) Our sun is unbelievably sophisticated!!
7) Betelgeuse (a large star) is a million times larger than our sun!
8) The size of VY Canis Majoris in the constellation Canis Majoris is enormous. VY Canis Majoris (red Hypergiant) has a RADIUS of at least 1,800 suns!! If VY Canis Majoris replaced our sun then all planets, from Mercury to Saturn (including Earth), would be inside of this giant sun!!
9) Milky Way Galaxy - 200 BILLION stars
10) Milky Way Galaxy has enough dust and gas to make billions of more stars!!!
11) Diameter of Milky Way Galaxy is 120,000 to 180,000 light years yet gravity still holds it together
12) More than half of the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy are older than 4.5 billion years old
13) As telescopes in space get bigger and better we find new galaxies
14) We really don't know the size of our Universe!!
15) At least one planet ORBITS BACKWORDS from the other planets in our solar system (Venus)
16) The moon Triton (orbits Neptune) only large moon with retrograde orbit (opposite of planet's rotation)
17) Sun and Stars: the paradox that the explosions inside the sun push out but gravity is pushing in - how is there a balance between the outward explosions and the inward pull of gravity?
18) Jupiter has at least 78 known moons
Earth - Planet Earth - See also "Moon"
1) Water necessary for life, where did it come from?
2) Why did water not evaporate from the heat of the Big Bang (if there was a accidental Big Bang)?
3) Atmosphere necessary for life, how did it form from a bare rock in space?
4) Seasons (rotation of earth) are important so half of the earth is not a desert and the other half freezing cold
5) Why is Earth not just one large rock? (e.g. where did water, sand and dirt come from?)
6) Rotation of earth necessary for life and ecology
7) The tilt of earth is necessary for life or the climates would be very different
8) Orbit around a sun necessary for life
9) Distance from sun must support life (not too hot, not too cold)
10) Our MOON is necessary for life on this earth (see Moon section)
First Living Cell
1) The "first living cell" could NOT have been created using nothing but sterile water, sand and rocks!!
2) The "first living cell" could not have "evolved" piecemeal, it had to be a complete cell from the beginning
3) Why did the first living cell "want" to divide into two cells?
4) How did it accidentally have the mechanisms to divide into two cells when it was the first cell?
5) How did the organelles in the first living cell come to exist by accident?
6) How does a cell "copy" the sophisticated organelles during cell division?
7) What did the "first living cell" eat if it was the first living thing? Nothing to eat but sand and rocks.
8) How did it eat (ports for getting food inside the cells)?
9) How did it excrete waste (ports to get waste out)?
10) How did its DNA or RNA form by accident?
11) A cell, with DNA or RNA, cannot be created by a bolt of lightning - that is far beyond stupidity
12) According to one source: the first living cell would need 60,000 proteins of 100 different configurations
13) Physical construction of DNA/RNA impossible to create by accident
xx) See the "Cells" section for more issues
yy) See the "DNA"sections for more issues
Adam and Eve (the First Human Couple)
1) Must be created in same latitude, same longitude so they could mate
2) Must be created in same timeframe so they could mate
3) They would need both male and female DNA that could ALIGN and create male and female children
4) Male and female DNA that could ALIGN such that children have features of both parents
5) Male and female children must have physical features such that they can mate
6) How did Adam and Eve survive to be able to eat if they came to exist as infants - no one to feed them
7) How did Adam and Eve survive if they started out as infants - could not have survived physically
8) The food supply of Adam and Eve must have existed BEFORE they existed or at the same time
9) They could not have come from another planet, that just moves the issues to another planet
10) Who were the "parents" of Adam and Eve - bonobos? - No - you cannot modify DNA, you can only damage DNA!!
11) In addition, an almost entirely new set of cell types would have been needed for bonobos to "evolve" into humans
12) As part of Adam and Eve being created, Heavenly Father had to create the 326 different kinds of cells needed for humans. Human scientists cannot create a single one of these cell types from scratch!!!
13) As with any new species, there is the issue of getting the right cell types into the correct cell locations!!!
14) Clearly God had to create the humans Adam and Eve (i.e. Adam and Eve were real people).
"Adam and Eve" (e.g. Bonobo and thousands of non-human species with a male and female)
Note: These are for EACH non-human species which have both males and females
1) Created in same latitude, same longitude so they could mate (for every male/female species!!!)
2) Created in same timeframe so they could mate (ditto)
3) Each species would need both male and female DNA that could ALIGN and create male and female children
4) The male and female must have physical features so they can mate
5) How did they survive to be able to eat if they came to exist as infants - no one to feed them
6) How did they survive if they started out as infants - easy pray for many animals
7) Their food supply must have existed BEFORE they existed or at the same time
8) Their DNA could NOT have been a modification of the DNA of the "parent" species (statistical issues)
1) I have a huge book called "Atlas of Anatomy" with 600 illustrations. Yet all of the sophistication of human anatomy comes from the instructions on the DNA of the fertilized egg inside the mother. This is inconceivable!!
Atheists And Their Deceptions
1) The atheists have a hidden agenda - to get converts to atheism (evolution is their best recruiting tool)
2) The atheists love to use DECEPTIVE definitions in order to get converts (see "Definitions" section)
3) Science textbooks generally imply to students that "everyone" believes in the theory of evolution and there is no controversy,
4) The atheists use clever insults and strong-arm tactics to intimidate youth
Atoms and Molecules
1) Scientists don't have a clue what physical elements the atoms are made of
2) Where did atoms come from (i.e. how were they made)??!!
3) Why don't the parts of an atom spin apart?
1) There are many proofs of Biblical events (e.g. Noah's flood) which equals a proof that the Bible is true
2) There was plenty of room for animals on Noah's ark!! Noah could have put many "infant" animals on board, plus he only needed one male and one female of each species - in fact the arc was way too big because Noah was expecting many converts, and he got none outside of his own family)!!
3) There are many examples of Hebrew Literary Forms in both the Bible and the Book of Mormon
4) The Bible has been proven historically accurate via other books written shortly after the time of Christ
5) The Biblical claim of 4,000 B. C. - Adam and Eve fits scientific data
6) The Biblical claim of 2,400 B.C. - the "flood" fits scientific data
7) The Biblical claim that in Year 0 Christ was born fits many historical records
1) An accidental "Big Bang" is an absurd theory of atheists to substitute for a Creator - it is "wishful thinking"
2) An accidental "Big Bang" does not fit the scientific data of the origin of the Universe
3) The Universe is far too sophisticated to have come to exist by an accidental, single explosion
4) Brigham Young claimed that no human on earth can comprehend the "First Cause of All Things"
5) If the initial explosion of the Big Bang (assuming it existed) differed in strength by 1 part in 1060 power, our Universe would not exist!!
6) This number can be compared to firing a bullet at a one-inch target (e.g. a quarter) from one side of the Universe to the other side of the Universe
7) An accidental Big Bang would have been so hot it would have evaporated any water on this planet or any other planet, meaning there would be no life on this planet
8) There is no left-over debris from an accidental Big Bang
9) See the "Universe" section and "Physical Constants" section (also see: www.discovery.org/a/91/)
10) In short, if there was a Big Bang, and there probably was, it was a project of God
Brain - Human Brain
1) The brain's ability to remember
2) The brains ability to reason / logic
3) The brains ability to create new ideas
4) The brains physical construction is very sophisticated
5) The brain is attached to the spinal cord to coordinate all movements of the body
6) The brain's internal signaling between brain neurons is unimaginable in complexity
7) Brain cells do not divide. If they did we would have no memory.
1) Human cell divisions (to create a baby from a fertilized egg) are CONTROLLED by the DNA of the fertilized egg and/or the spirit of the new baby
2) During cell division how does the Golgi Apparatus get copied?
3) Ditto for the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and other organelles in the cell
4) How did the ability to copy the Golgi Apparatus EVOLVE - it had to work perfectly the first time, not work in sequential pieces
5) Study: Mitochondrion, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Vesicles, Nucleus, Cell Membranes, Cell Wall, etc.
6) How did the complex "string" (between the two cells as they are pulling apart) evolve? It had to work the first time
7) The overall process of cell divisions is far too complex to have "evolved" by a sequence of trial-and-error efforts.
7) When the "First Living Cell" divided, the "second cell" had to survive the first time - there could not have been a trial-and-error process
8) "Second Living Cell," created by cell division, also had to have been created in an environment of sterile water, sand and rocks.
Cell Biology (the Cell Itself)
1) Hundreds of scientists have PhD degrees in Cell Biology. If cells were simple they would only be mentioned in general biology classes. There are in fact HUNDREDS of reasons evolution cannot be true just because of the things that are going on inside of cells!!!
2) Cell Biology books have hundreds of specialized terms (read college textbooks on Cell Biology, one book I have has more than 900 terms in the reference section)
3) Hundreds of college students have PhD degrees in Cell Biology - it requires one or more new discoveries to get a PhD
4) The construction of cells is very complex
5) There is no such thing as a "simple cell"
6) The "first living cell" theory is nonsense - a cell with DNA or RNA cannot form from sterile water, sand and rocks
7) All of the scientists in the world could not create a living cell from scratch by using only raw elements from the Periodic Table. See the "First Living Cell" section below
8) Cells must have ports in the cell walls so food can get in (cell membranes) - even for the First Living Cell
9) Cells must have ports in cell walls so waste can get out (cell membranes) - even for the First Living Cell
10) Cell walls may be able to communicate with enzymes to make needed enzymes from the DNA for the cell wall
11) Mechanisms in the Cells - such as Behe's rotary engine - are too sophisticated and have too many parts to have formed by accident because all of the parts had to exist at the same time
12) Rotary engine could not have evolved piece by piece because ALL of the pieces necessary for it to work had to be in place at the same time!!
13) The creation of ATP molecules in cells, which are required to keep the cell from falling apart, is far too complex to have been created one step at a time
14) The DNA inside of each cell is protected from the DNA of microbes or from any other source. The DNA inside of each cell is protected by the "nuclear membrane," also known as the "nuclear envelope."
15) Books on Cell Biology and Dictionaries of Cell terms are large books physically
Cell Biology (the DNA Component)
1) How DNA controls the "morphing of the embryo" of a newborn baby is far beyond human understanding
2) The DNA has the patterns needed to create the enzymes in the cells (i.e. genes)
3) The paradox of how the genes (for the FIRST enzyme in the cell) were found BEFORE any enzymes existed
NOTE: There are actually more than one hundred reasons the theory of evolution cannot be true just in cell biology. For example, every cell uses 10 million ATP molecules every second and recycles all of its own ATP molecules about every 20-30 seconds. Cells are unbelievably complex.
1) A new baby has 60,000 miles of blood vessels when born
2) How does circulatory system get food to every cell in the body?
3) How and why is the DNA for some red blood cells removed
4) How does blood get from the FIRST mother (Eve) to the FIRST human baby (too complex for evolution)
5) How does blood get from mother to the baby today (this is known but too complex for this article)
1) Do animals have a "Common Ancestor" or do they have a "Common Designer?" The latter is true.
2) Seeming "gills" as human embryo grows does have a function and are not left over from evolution
3) There are no "vestigial organs" in spite of what the atheists say - everything has a purpose
1) There are many, many Creation Scientists who believe the scientific evidence supports the existence of God!!
2) Creation Scientists (e.g. Dennis Prager) have written HUNDREDS of anti-evolution books!!
Of course, so have the atheists and evolutionists.
This section is largely in defense of Darwin because Darwin lived long before the discovery of DNA so he had no idea why a dog was a dog and why a cat was a cat, etc. etc.
1) Darwin lived BEFORE the discovery of DNA. What he observed was MICROevolution, never MACROevolution
2) Natural Selection (Survival of the Fittest) does not CREATE anything, it only destroys animals
3) Phylogenetic Tree is based on the "visual form" of animals, not DNA
4) There are limits to Natural Selection or Eskimos would "evolve" fur to keep warm
5) If natural selection true, people in Northern countries would have dark skin to absorb sunlight better
6) Why doesn't a wingless bird evolve wings?
7) How did gills evolve? Fish would have died in water long before their gills would evolve.
8) Gills would have had to evolve in land animals so that fish could evolve from land animals and have gills, but land animals don't need gills.
9) How did lungs evolve? We would have died long before our lungs would have adequately evolved.
10) Where are the transitional species to create dinosaurs?
Death (Spirit World)
1) For humans, death simply puts a person from the mortal world into the spirit world. Of course the atheists do not believe in life after death (they will believe in life after death after they die)
2) Resurrection will apply to all people, whether wicked or righteous, but when they are resurrected and where they go after resurrection is dependent on what they did in life.
Definitions (i.e. Deceptive Definitions)
Deceptive definitions are a major tool the atheists and evolutionists use to get converts to the theory of evolution!! The term "unique species" should mean a "unique DNA structure." But if the atheists used that definition of "species" there would be zero evidence for the theory of evolution. So they use all kinds of deceptive definitions to get "evidence" for evolution. There are seven chapters in the "Patterns of Intelligence" book (which is free and on this website) which discuss the deceptive definitions of the atheists. The next section also discusses this topic.
1) Clever and deceptive definitions, used by the atheists, are a major source of their deceptions and "evidence" for evolution!!
2) The definition of a "species" should be based on DNA, not the visual form of an animal!!!
3) A "Unique Species" should be EQUAL to a "Unique DNA Structure," but evolutionists don't define "species" in that way or they would have zero evidence for evolution.
4) "Microevolution" could not be defined until the discovery of DNA - variation within the same DNA structure
5) "Macroevolution is true evolution, meaning there is a new DNA structure, but there has been ZERO credible evidence for macroevolution!! (i.e. a new DNA structure has never been shown to have been formed by a series of accidents)
6) Using deceptive definitions is THE MAJOR TACTIC of the atheists and evolutionists
6a) to get converts to atheism!!!
7) Atheists love to use examples of MICROevolution and claim they are examples of MACROevolution!!!
8) That is PRECISELY why the atheists and evolutionists do not like to use these terms properly or at all.
9) "God of the Gaps" essentially means that if scientists cannot explain something, then God must have done it.
10) But "God of the Gaps" term is a function of current technology and is NOT an evidence for evolution or creation science.
11) Evolutionist do NOT have a good definition of the term "species" and thus for the term "speciation, " meaning the process of creating a new species by evolution means absolutely nothing. It is essentially a branching point on Darwin's Phylogenetic Tree which was not based on DNA, but on the visual form of animals.
12) "Punctuated Equilibrium" is an evolutionist term that means new species came forth quickly as a result of new environments. It is designed to explain why "evolution" does not have to be very, very slow. But the concept is nonsense because it would require very fast new mutations; but mutations to DNA, which improve the DNA, are impossible!!
13) "Punctuated equilibrium" is not a proof for anything, it is only an observation. It exists because new species appear so quickly that the atheists cannot explain how they came to exist by accidents.
DNA - Designed By God
Note: everything in this section should be in red.
1) DNA is so sophisticated that it cannot be created in nature (i.e. by accidents) - not even close!!
2) DNA is so sophisticated that it cannot be created by humans - not even close!!
3) DNA is a massively sophisticated computer program - FAR MORE sophisticated than any human-designed program!!
4) There is NO INTELLIGENCE in randomness, meaning accidents cannot create DNA
5) How do so many species have unique and functional DNA - it is statistically impossible?
6) Morphing of the Embryo Algorithms (on DNA) of single fertilized egg for many species (e.g. 60,000 miles of bloodstream) is so sophisticated is it FAR BEYOND human comprehension
7) Program on DNA must make sure blood vessels are closed before blood starts to circulate, thus the "timing" of the creation of cells is critical
8) Physical construction of DNA is beyond comprehension
9) Once a DNA strand is created - new nucleotides CANNOT physically be inserted!! This would require breaking the DNA and then reconnecting the DNA. This is insane because once DNA is broken it cannot be reconnected!! Thus, you cannot create new DNA from scratch or from an old species - it is impossible for physical reasons!!
10) Once a DNA strand is created - an existing nucleotide CANNOT physically be changed!! Ditto
11) Once a DNA strand is created - an existing nucleotide CANNOT physically be deleted and the DNA be reconnected!! In other words, once a DNA strand is broken it cannot be fixed by humans or by accidents.
12) The DNA of one species CANNOT be created, modified or a section deleted, to create another species due to the above items!!
13) What the above items mean is that the DNA for every species had to be created specifically for that species, from scratch, because you cannot modify DNA once it is made!!!
14) Male DNA (in male sperm cell) must make a male child and ultimately a male adult (though the spirit is likely involved also)
15) Female DNA (in female sperm cell) must make a female child and ultimately a female adult (ditto for the spirit involvement)
16) Male and female DNA must align such that children have characteristics of both parents
17) Male/female alignment must be able to create male and female offspring
18) Male DNA and female DNA must align at the gene level, morphing of the embryo level, etc. - impossible
19) Microevolution (variety within a species) creates very high variety even with the same DNA structure
20) Where do new species (i.e. new DNA structures) come from? (macroevolution) - God
21) The structure of DNA itself is incomprehensible (see DNA window image elsewhere on this website)
22) DNA is by far the most SOPHISTICATED computer program on this planet BY FAR - it could not be created by accidents
23) Could you improved a computer program by RANDOMLY mutating an old computer program (e.g. evolution cannot create a new and improved DNA strand by accident)?
24) Could you add new features to an existing computer program by RANDOMLY mutating an existing computer program (i.e. object code)?
25) Why do we need Computer Programmers if evolution is true? - Randomness could create all computer programs if evolution were true
26) It is said that human DNA contains enough information for a thousand complete sets of encyclopedias
27) DNA has a limited ability to repair itself if there is an issue during replication
28) DNA has the ability to create a body which can heal itself (e.g. President Russell M. Nelson "heal its own torn pages" quote)
29) There must be something to INTERPRET and APPLY the Morphing of the Embryo algorithms
30) DNA not only controls the creation of the baby, but ALSO how the child grows into an adult
31) If you were a spy would you - take pictures of an automobile (human) or take pictures of the blueprints of the automobile? - Obviously you would take pictures of the blueprint (i.e. symbolic of DNA)
32) If there was NO DNA there would be NO plants and NO animals
33) DNA similarities between animals implies a common DESIGNER, not common accidents
34) The concept that newer/better species (i.e. new and improved DNA) can be created by evolution is nonsense after DNA was discovered!!
35) DNA in plants and animals allows selective breeding, but there is a limit to what breeders can create in this manner
36) Natural Selection says that the animals with good DNA eat the animals with bad DNA. But where does the DNA for both animals come from??
DNA - Creating New DNA For a New Species - The Major Paradox of Evolution!!!
Note: This item is largely an academic discussion because, as already mentioned, DNA cannot be changed, it can only be damaged!!!
1a) Random mutations to good DNA (for an existing species), will happen in an attempt to create a new and improved
species from an existing species.
1b) For example, as more and more good mutations create better and better DNA, for a new and improved species,
new mutations will affect a higher and higher percentage of the "good" DNA, and will affect less and less of the bad DNA.
1c) This is a paradox for evolution. If evolution were true, as the mutations created more and more good
nucleotides, future mutations would damage more and more GOOD nucleotides and less and less BAD nucleotides!!
1d) As an example, if 70% of the DNA is good, then 70% of future mutations would affect GOOD nucleotides (and would
potentially do DAMAGE) and 30% of the mutations will affect BAD nucleotides.
1e) The bottom line is that it would be impossible to achieve even 95% good nucleotides.
2) To further explain, when 90% of the DNA is good (via prior mutations), then 90% of the mutations will affect GOOD
2a) nucleotides, doing potential DAMAGE to the DNA, and only 10% of the mutations will affect BAD nucleotides
2b) and might or might not fix that nucleotide (25% of the time the mutation will fix the nucleotide, A, C, G, T).
3) To summarize, as more and more DNA is fixed, it becomes increasingly more impossible to fix the rest of the DNA
3a) without damaging good nucleotides!! (this is a slam on evolutionists who claim that DNA "evolved").
4) This is why you cannot create a superior species from an inferior species because new mutations to a
4a) good DNA strand will almost entirely be detrimental because most of the DNA is good!! In other words,
4b) a billion years of mutations will not be any better than a million years of mutations because as the DNA
4c) gets better and better it gets more and more likely that good nucleotides will be converted into bad
5) The evolutionists assume that ALL mutations will affect BAD nucleotides. But this is complete nonsense.
6) The concept of "billions of years" does not justify evolution because a billion years of mutations will be
6a) no better than millions years of mutations because all changes are totally random.
DNA Statistics - Summary
1) DNA never improves by random mutations to individual nucleotides because:
2) The cell has no way to know WHERE a nucleotide needs to be added, deleted or changed.
3) The cell has no way to FIND exactly where a nucleotide on DNA should be added to, deleted or changed.
4) The cell has no way to PHYSICALLY add, delete or make a change to a chosen nucleotide slot on the DNA
5) In short, evolution has no way to intelligently add, change or delete DNA at the nucleotide level.
DNA Statistics - Kehr's Paradox
1) Kehr's Paradox is a system of logic which counteracts the deceptions of the evolutionists:
1a) Kehr's Paradox: Regardless of the percent of correct nucleotides on a DNA strand, random changes,
1b) both in terms of which nucleotide slot a change is made in and in terms of what nucleotide is added, changed
1c) or deleted, ultimately the DNA will have 25% correct nucleotides and 75% incorrect nucleotides. This is
1d) because the nucleotide in each slot is always randomly placed and randomly chosen. Thus, even if you start
1e) with 90% correct nucleotides, you will end up with no more than 25% correct nucleotides if you have enough
2) Kehr's Paradox essentially says that evolution (i.e. random changes to DNA) cannot create a viable DNA
2a) for any species of insect, plant or animal because if the DNA becomes more correct (e.g. 80% correct), due to random mutations,
2b) it is more and more likely you will damage a good nucleotide with a mutation with additional mutations.
3) Also, if enough mutations occur the DNA will eventually have: 25% 'A', 25% 'C', 25% 'G', and 25% 'T' nucleotides.
4) In summary, regardless of where these nucleotides are, at most only 25% of all nucleotides will be correct if
4a) all nucleotides are randomly placed. Kehr's Paradox is a proof that evolution cannot be true if all DNA
4b) nucleotides are randomly chosen and placed. However, the theory of evolution has no other choice except to
4c) admit that all nucleotides are randomly chosen and randomly placed. Q.E.D.
1) Brigham Young Quote: "... it would be as easy for an ant to number the grains ..." (See: "Where Did God Come From" article)
1a) This is a claim that God existed long, long before the Big Bang!!
2) LDS Song: "If You Could Hie To Kolob" - William W. Phelps (1792-1872) - music from old English melody
Ether or Aether (Nichola Tesla)
1) Ether (i.e. Nichola Tesla) - Ether (or aether) is a substance that fills the universe and it is the medium for light.
2) Many scientists do not believe in ether because Tesla was a genius who mastered the use of ether.
3) Many scientists are not interested in truth, they are interested in being associated with Einstein and in getting funding.
4) The distance that light travels is incredible, ether must be very, very incredibly efficient.
5) If light were massless particles or particles with a small amount of mass, they could not travel billions of light years!!!
6) URL: aither.weebly.com/the-foundation-of-physical-constants.html
7) More than one scientist (including myself) believe that ether may be a reason for some physical constants
8) Nichola Tesla used the ether (i.e. aether) to transmit electricity - "free energy" - which is precisely why Tesla is IGNORED
9) "Science" is all about money, not truth. It is just as true in physics as it is in evolution,
10) An experiment at Sprint Corporation, many years ago, proved light travels though the ether and thus ether exists,
11) Five physics journals REFUSED to even look at the Sprint article about the experiment because they loved Einstein, not truth!!
12) An experiment at a giant electronics company (now classified as "Secret") - proved energy can be transmitted as Tesla predicted and proved.
13) This fact has been suppressed because of corruption in government.
14) Bottom line: physicists and many other scientists hate truth, all they are interested in is status. Plus they get more funding by pushing Einstein than by pushing Tesla.
15) Tesla was massively more intelligent than Einstein. Tesla is blacklisted because of free energy issues.
16) Because Tesla is blacklisted most scientists won't mention his name even though Tesla is literally the "father" of 20th century and 21st century technology.
Ethics and Evolution
1) Evolution has no concept of "right or wrong" - it is "kill or be killed" (i.e. natural selection)
2) Without God to monitor and control humanity, a human society could never form beyond the family unit.
Evolution Cannot Be True (Miscellaneous)
1) Wings of a bird could not have gradually evolved - no survival benefit with half of a wing!!
2) Gap between monkey and human too massive (plus male and female issue) - no transitional examples
3) Single Cell complexity (e.g. First Living Cell) could not be created by lighting, dirt, water, rocks and/or sand
4) DNA Error Checking could not have evolved by accident
5) Evolution cannot change the chromosome count - each species is locked into its chromosome count
6) Origin of massive amounts of matter in Universe - matter cannot be created out of nothing
7) Mars has water and an atmosphere but NO life - why not if evolution is true?
8) Radio silence in space means nothing because of the vast, vast distances involved and the spreading/dilution
8a) of any signal by the time it got to Earth. Our equipment is not sensitive enough to detect such a diluted
8b) level of signal. I don't know if the astronomers are lying to get converts to atheism or they are just stupid.
Evolution Debate (Miscellaneous)
1) Atheists love to deceive people by looking at the "visual form" of animals and invent clever stories
2) The "visual form" of an animal has NOTHING to do with the creation of a new species, new DNA is required
3) Prior to 1953 Darwin was correct, but with the discovery of DNA everything changed
4) The evolution debate should be about WHERE the sophistication of DNA came from, not phylogenetic trees
5) The evolution debate should be about PROBABILITY applied to DNA
6) Atheists have to lie and deceive to get converts - AND THEY DO!!!
7) Evolutionists want origins SIMPLE and quick. But Brigham Young ("easy for an ant") says complex and LONG
Evolution Debate - "Kinds" of Evolution
1) Cosmic Evolution - the origin of time, space and matter
2) Chemical Evolution - origin of higher elements from hydrogen
3) Stellar and Planetary Evolution - Origin of stars by a series of accidents
4) Organic Evolution - Origin of Life
5) Microevolution - Variety Within a Species - TRUE
6) Macroevolution - Change in one DNA strand into a more sophisticated DNA strand - FALSE
6a) (Note: This is where most "tricky definitions" come into play. Clever definitions intentionally create a "fog" between microevolution and macroevolution.)
1) How are the two eyes synchronized so the person sees in 3D? Could not have evolved.
2) Collagen in eyes must be constructed differently than elsewhere in body so a person can see through it
2a) (see SAM YouTube video)!
3) How is the outside light converted into nerve signals to brain? Could not have evolved.
Failures of DNA Mutation
1) For each positive random mutation, there would be BILLIONS of failures!! Where is the evidence of the failures??
2) The entire Universe would be covered with mutated, dead animals if evolution were true - no evidence
First Cause of All Things
1) Brigham Young Quote - the "first cause" is far beyond human comprehension
2) May have happened quintillions of years ago or much, much longer than that - we have no idea
1) Fossils are a proof that many DNA strands existed many years ago in animals that are now extinct
2) But the age of fossils is very controversial due to flawed dating techniques
3) It is possible the really big animals were not put on Noah's Ark, not even the babies, for safety reasons,
3a) which is why they would have gone extinct.
Genes / Enzymes
1) How does the cell know WHICH enzymes it needs to create?
2) How does the cell FIND the exact nucleotide on DNA where a gene begins - Call it Bob at location B??
3) How does the cell FIND the exact nucleotide on DNA where a gene ends - Call it Jim at Location J??
4) Something in the cell needs to know that B and J exist AND how to find B and J!!
5) Paradox - How did the first "finder" enzymes get created before the first "finder" enzymes existed to find its genes?
1) God is "Heavenly Father" in LDS church - Jeffrey R. Holland: "The Grandeur of God" - October, 2003 Conference
2) There was a beginning, but it was a really, really, really long time ago (Brigham Young)
3) God has created millions of planets like this one (Brigham Young)
4) How does God travel from solar system to solar system in an instant?
5) Why is God so smart? (He was chosen to be God precisely because He was the smartest)
6) "Book of Mormon is a uniform view of God in all His glory and goodness" (Holland)
7) "How is it that thou canst weep?" Pearl of Great Price, talking about God
8) Atheists ask: "Where did God come from?" and Creationists ask: "where did the object for Big Bang come from?"
9) Creation scientists claim: In the beginning God
10) Atheists claim: In the beginning dirt - BOTH VIEWS are religions
xx God - See also the "Mormon" section
God Required (Or It Wouldn't Exist)
1) Some species or systems are SO complex they could not have "evolved" piece by piece.
2) DNA and cells are good examples. These items are listed mentioned many times on this page
1) No one has a clue what gravity is, they only know it exists (e.g. why don't we float to ceiling?)
2) Gravity makes no sense whatsoever (e.g. that two huge stars would be attracted to each other)
3) Stars and planets can be massively far apart but still have powerful gravity between them
4) (My Theory) Mass of a large body creates a weakness in the ether, which causes celestial bodies to attract?
1) How did the first heart, of the first creature which had a heart, form, simultaneous with the blood
1a) vessels, etc.???
2) Human heart starts beating at 16 or 18 days AFTER conception!!!
1) Our intelligence may be independent from our spirit or it may be part of our spirit.
1) Concept: ALL parts of the system must be present at the same time or the system will not work, meaning
1a) the system could not have evolved one step at a time. NO BENEFIT unless all the parts are there.
2) There are MANY examples on this page, such as the brain and heart.
3) The flagellum of some single-celled animals (used for propulsion) - Michael Behe's "Darwin's Black Box" book
4) Complexity of having two eyes that see in 3-Dimensions
5) Complexity of cells - cells could not have "evolved" piecemeal
6) Cilia - hair like structures to move fluid over various surfaces
Kingdoms (After Death and Judgment Day)
1) Celestial, Terrestrial, Telestial, Son of Perdition - don't know about progression from kingdom to kingdom
2) However, we know there is NO progression for Sons of Perdition (LDS doctrine, see King Follett Discourse)
3) Some people say that becoming a "Son of Perdition" is so hard that you can count them on one hand,
however, the "King Follett Discourse" of Joseph Smith totally destroys this theory,
Speech of Joseph Smith: King Follett Discourse
4) Even some non-LDS may be at risk for becoming "like unto the Son of Perdition" (see Book of Mormon: 3 Nephi 29:5-7)
1) What is Life? (most likely "life" requires a spirit)
2) Creating life from non-life has been attempted, but has never been achieved (see First Living Cell)
3) Why can't you bring a mouse back to life 5 minutes after you kill it? All its body parts are still intact
4) No one has a clue what "life" really is (unless it is spirit)
5) Will we live forever? Our spirits will and so will our bodies AFTER the resurrection
6) Human beings start as an "intelligence," then a "spirit"
7) Our physical body houses our intelligence and our spirit
1) Is light photons or aether? - Answer: aether (also sometimes spelled: ether)
2) Kehr experiments at Sprint proved photons do not exist, thus ether must exist - Tesla was right!!
3) Where did Ether come from?
4) If photons exist, how can they travel if they have no mass?
5) Paradox - if photons have mass, how can they be accelerated so quickly in an instant?
6) How in the world can we see another galaxy WITHOUT the light from many other galaxies interfering?
6b) In other words, light waves from a trillion different directions do not interfere with each other in space!!!
6c) (Note: not even the ether theory can answer this issue)
Male / Female Issues (All Species With a Male and Female)
1) How could male DNA and female DNA align if they were both created by accident?
2) How does male DNA align with female DNA so the baby (male or female) has features of both parents?
3) This alignment must include genes, etc. - statistically impossible
4) Ditto for all species which have both a male and female
5) When the sperm cell enters the ovum of the mother, how does the DNA in the sperm cell get pulled
5b) out of the sperm cell when it is inside the ovum?
6) After the DNA of the sperm cell is pulled out, how does this DNA align perfectly with the DNA
6b) in the mother's ovum? Both DNA must be pointed in the same direction and they must align perfectly.
7) Clearly the DNA for males and females, for all species, had to be designed by God
Mathematics See "Permutations" section below
1) Our moon is 1/4 the size of earth - it stabilizes the earth's orbit and rotation
2) The moon stabilizes the temperatures on earth, such as by causing ocean tides
3) Moonlight helps animals at night
4) Moon helps with tilting of earth's axis and controls climate change
5) Moon has so much mass it makes the earth and moon a "binary/double planet system"
6) Ecology of ocean is tuned to moon light
7) Hadean Period of earth (when there was no moon) had lots of volcanoes (??)
8) Without the moon there would be a thick atmosphere on earth
9) Without moon the earth might spin faster (??)
10) Without moon there might be shorter days, higher winds and strange creatures (per evolutionists)
11) Without moon stronger jet streams - 100-200 mph winds, stronger hurricanes, ever-changing climate
12) Without moon the earth would wobble more
13) Without moon there might not be as much complex life
14) Dark Side of moon MAY have life on it (Joseph Smith)
15) Many people believe the moon landings were FAKED!!
Morphing of the Embryo - Mostly Humans
1) Algorithms on DNA of fertilized egg control morphing from single fertilized egg to human baby
2) How do the algorithms avoid putting fingernail cells in the brain, etc.?
3) How make sure the right cells are put in at the right time (if brain grew faster than skull)?
4) Cells must be created in the CORRECT ORDER as fetus morphs
5) At four weeks, the fetus is developing 1 million cells PER SECOND
6) How create bloodstream while everything else is being made?
7) All blood vessels must be fully enclosed BEFORE blood starts to circulate
8) How does blood get from mother to baby as baby is morphing (this is known but complex)?
9) How create brain and nervous system while everything else is being made?
10) When there are 16 cells issue - incomprehensible type of logic (see" "When There are 16 Cells" article on this website
11) Amazing Video - "Conception to Birth" - TED.com - Alexander Tsiaras (look for other TED videos)
Mormon - Book of Mormon
1) Brigham Young's incredible statement about "easy for an ant to count …" (see above)
2) Book of Mormon PREDICTED the theory of evolution in 1830 - 29 years BEFORE Darwin's first book!!
2a) (see: Alma 30)
3) Alma 30 also REJECTED the theory of evolution in 1830 - 29 years BEFORE Darwin's first book
Natural Selection - See the Darwin section
1) Baby has many miles of nerves when born
2) How do signals move around the nervous system so accurately?
3) How do signals move so quickly around nervous system
4) How does the brain get the signals and act on them by sending out new signals
5) The sophistication of brain and spinal cord and spine
1) Massive project of evangelical researchers (e.g. Ken Ham and Kent Hovind and Eric Hovind)
2) If Noah's ark is proven to be valid, then the Bible is valid and thus God is valid (this is their logic)
1) If species has a male and female - they must come to exist in the same latitude, longitude so they could mate
2) If species has a male and female - they must come to exist in same general timeframe so they could mate
3) If species has a male and female - DNA must align so that children have features of both parents
4) If species has a male and female - DNA must align so that they can have both male and female offspring
5) If species has a male and female - who were the parents of the first male and female of each species?
6) How did they survive to be able to eat if they came to exist as infants?
Order of Species On Earth
1) Evolution must start with the simplest organisms, then slightly more advanced (use prior for food), etc. etc.
2) During this process the order and types of the genes must constantly change from species to species, etc.
2a) Particularly unlikely for each species with both a male and female
1) Which came first - the chicken or the egg?
2) Consider the enzymes which are used by the cell to find the genes on the DNA to create enzymes:
2a) where did these enzymes come from? In other words, the genes are on the DNA. But the genes cannot be found
2b) without enzymes, but the enzymes are created from the genes. So how did these first genes get found before
2c) the first enzymes were created?
3) How did the first species, with a male and female, come to exist from a single sex animal?
4) Who were the parents of the first male human BORN ON THIS EARTH?
5) Who were the parents of the first female human BORN ON THIS EARTH?
6) These same questions apply to every species with a male and female
Permutations Of Nucleotides (One of the Top Reasons Evolution Is Absurd!!!)
1) Permutations of nucleotides on DNA are BY FAR one of the best proofs the theory of evolution is nonsense:
2) For example, there are 4^3,200,000,000 ways to order the nucleotides on a human DNA
3) Let us assume that 4^200,000,000 are viable permutations that will create a human baby
4) This means the probability that a random permutation will create a human baby is 1/ 4^3,000,000,000!!
5) This is INSANE: it is far worse than randomly picking the single correct atom from among many trillions of
5a) Universes like our own Universe!!
6) These kinds of numbers apply to all species, but are worse for species with both a male and female
6a) because the male and female DNA strands must align with each other in a very precise way
7) By comparison the number of atoms in our Universe is estimated to be about 4^150, which is pathetically small
8) Precise permutations are needed to create every species of plant and animal
9) The DNA for some plants is far, far, far longer than human DNA, thus these permutations are worse
10 Viable permutations are VERY, VERY, VERY, VERY, …, RARE for every species!!!
11) Permutation on male DNA (for many species) must align properly with permutation on female DNA!!!
12) Sophisticated permutations provide the data and computer programs on DNA, the same as human computer programs
13) Where is the physical evidence that an almost infinite number of FAILED permutations have happened??!!!!!
13a) Virtually an unlimited number of Universes would be full of dead plants and animals if evolution were true
13b) because of the permutation issue (i.e. most permutations would fail and lead to a dead animal).
1) There are more than 300 physcial constants, such as the Plank constant (6.6260755) and Boltzmann Constant (1.380658)
2a) Massive accuracy is needed for some of the physical constants, particularly for stars to exist. For example, during the creation of the Universe if the ratio of the gravitational force-constant to the electro-force-constant increased by as much as one in 1040 only small stars could have formed,
2b) But if this ratio increased by the same amont then only large stars would have formed.
2c) These constants need to be so accurate it would be like shooting a rifle and hitting a quarter all the way across the known Universe!!
5) Ether may be very involved in the values and existence of some or all of the physical constants but ether (i.e. aether) is rejected by the scientific community because it was supported by Tesla. Tesla could create free energy and could transmit energy so he is blacklisted by the massive money of the super-rich who hate free energy.
Physics: See the section on Universe
1) Without phytoplankton in the oceans humans would not exist
1) It is NOT a coincidence that plants "exhale" oxygen and inhale carbon dioxide
1a) There would be no humans without plants!!
2) Plants had to exist on this planet long before humans existed (to create oxygen)
3) There are many, many varieties of plants (e.g. each with unique DNA)
4) Plants are critical foods for humans
5) Plants add beauty and variety to the world
Politics of Evolution
1) There are hundreds of atheists, such as Stephen Jay Gould, that use Evolution to get converts to atheism,
2) Their "evidence" for evolution ended when DNA was discovered in 1953!!!,
3) Atheists want evolution to be taught in public schools - their success varies by state and by school district
4) Louisiana passed a law REQUIRING Creation Science be taught, but the Supreme Court struck it down!!
5) (Edwards v. Aguillard) - Supreme Court obviously doesn't understand our constitution
6) Roger Baldwin, founder of ACLU, was a STRONG supporter of abortion, communism, evolution, etc.
7) Karl Marx was a big fan of evolution because it did away with God
8) Many colleges, especially in biology courses, teach the theory of evolution
9) A WARNING TO ATHEISTS - READ Matthew 18:6 (whoso shall offend one of these little ones …)
10) High School - Creation Science Journal: "Vital Articles On Creation Science" - No. 196 - Oct 1989 - Teachers
10a) CAN teach Creation Science"
11) Laws vary by state: Robert L. Simonds, ThD - Institute for Creation Research (619) 448-0900
Protoplasm (In Cells)
1) Protoplasm is considered by some to be an organism!! (Life, Nutrition, Reproduction, Contractility)
1) Random changes in an ordered systems almost always decreases the amount of order in the system
2) You cannot create an ordered system from scratch using nothing but randomness
3) This can be verified with computers using nothing but random numbers to create a new computer program
3a) or make changes to an existing program.
1) Skull necessary to protect the brain
2) Spine necessary to protect the spinal cord
3) Bones necessary so humans (and other complex animals) can function!!
4) Sophistication of joints
The Spirit of a Human Being
1) There would be no life without a spirit (Bible)
2) Different kinds of spirits for different animals/plants - unknown??
3) We lived as spirits (and intelligences) before we were born and will again be spirits between death and
1) Stars are a combination of explosions and gravity - how does this balance get created?
2) Stars are a combination of explosions and gravity - how is this balance maintained over the life of a star?
3) How can stars be created by a series of accidents?
4) Why are stars exploding on their surface but they do not explode??
5) No one knows how a star forms (Martin Harwit, Science, vol 231, 7 March 1986 p. 1201-1202)
6) There are so many stars that EVERY person on earth could own: 11,000,000,000,000 stars
7) VY Canis Majoris (star) is so large that if it replaced our Sun, all plants from Mercury to Saturn,
7a) including the Earth, would be inside of this star.
1) Bees need flowers and flowers need bees to polinate
1) Some animals which are SO UNIQUE, they could not have any ancestor species!!
1) An accidental Big Bang is nonsense - what exploded? What could have that much mass and yet be so small by accident?
2) God had to exist long before the Big Bang
3) How does a Galaxy form by a series of accidents?
4) How Light travels from one galaxy/star to another
5) Size of Universe (i.e. size of space with suns, planets, etc.)
6) There are about ONE TRILLION Galaxies
7) Galaxies are organized in clusters, super clusters, etc. - could not have happened by accident
There are many pro-evolution websites and many anti-evolution websites.
Here is an example of another Anti-Evolution Website:
The Top Ten Scientific Problems with Biological and Chemical Evolution
Young Earth Theory / Young Universe Theory
1) If the Universe was young, and the entire Universe was created 6,000 years ago, the light from distant
1a) stars, galaxies, etc. would not have reached us yet and we would not be able to see these objects!!
2) This also implies some power created the entire Universe in a few days, centuries or millinea - not credible
3) LDS church has scriptures that do not have the same problems as the early chapters of Genesis. These were published before the death of Joseph Smith in 1844.
Lines for Search Engines:
Over 400 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 350 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 300 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 250 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 200 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 150 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 100 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 50 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 25 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Over 10 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 400 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 350 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 300 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 250 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 200 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 150 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 100 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 50 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 25 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
More Than 10 Reasons Why the Theory of Evolution Cannot Be True
Click the back arrow or if you came to this page by a search engine, click this: